Reconstruction Period in Beaufort, South Carolina, 1862 – 1915

As Dr. J. Brent Morris wrote on the America’s Reconstruction | The Untold Story website: “The Reconstruction Era was literally a period of rebuilding … The ending of slavery not only brought freedom to African Americans but also inaugurated a complex reshaping of fundamental American institutions including the lawmaking process, family structure, church organization, and the very definition of American citizenship itself.”(2015)ar-headerReconstruction left an especial imprint on the Lowcountry as it began in our locality late in 1861 and is said to have ended locally only with the death of Robert Smalls in 1915. Here we include works covering the gamut of historical interpretations of the period, from seeing the period as an unwarranted and hateful domination of the South by the victorious Union, to those that conclude Reconstruction was a tragic missed opportunity to establish equal rights for all American citizens.

This list of selective materials and links was compiled by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Beaufort District Collection Manager. The Beaufort District Collection is the special local history collection and archives unit of the Beaufort County Library (SC). Latest update: 22 May 2017

PrimarBDC New Logo_SQUARE FOR FBy Source Materials:

DIARIES & PERSONAL ACCOUNTS

Rev. George Newcomb 1864 Journal (Transcription) [stored in vertical file, Newcomb, George (Rev.)]

“Notes and Extracts from Letters – Beaufort, S.C., 1862 – 1863, during Occupancy by Federal Troops” by Kate Foote and Harriet Foote Hawley (wife of Colonel, afterwards General Joseph H. Hawley.) [Typescript given to Beaufort Township Library on 25 January 1939, by Harriet Ward Foote Taylor (Mrs. Herbert A. Taylor) of Cleveland, OH.] [Typescript is filed in the “Miscellaneous Materials on Topics of Local Interest” box]

SC 306.3621 BOT 1893 First Days Amongst the Contrabands by Elizabeth Hyde Botume, Lee and Shepard, 1893, c1892. (BDC, HHI SC) Available on Internet Archive at https://archive.org/details/firstdaysamongst00botu.

SC 306.3621 EXT Extracts from letters of teachers and superintendents of the New-England Educational Commission for Freedmen, 4th series, 1864. Also available online through Hathitrust https://hdl.handle.net/2027/miun.abl5707.0001.001

SC 371.1 JOU The Journals of Charlotte Forten Grimké edited by Brenda Stevenson, 1988 (BDC, HHI SC)

SC 371.1. JOU Journals of Charlotte Forten, edited by Ray Allen Billington, 1953. (BDC, HHI SC) Also available online through Hathitrust http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.$b92760

SC 973.77579 LET Letters from Port Royal written at the time of the Civil War, edited by Elizabeth Ware Pearson, 1906. Also available online through Hathitrust https://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015003752865

SC 973.781 BAL Dudley Baldwin’s Letters from Hilton Head, 1863-1864, 1977.

SC 975.799 TOW Letters and diary of Laura M. Towne:Written from the Sea Islands of South Carolina, 1862-1884, 1912. (This edition only in BDC). Other editions available at ALL. There is an Internet Archive e-version of the 1912 edition of this book at https://archive.org/details/cu31924074445267 and through Hathitrust at http://hdl.handle.net/2027/wu.89098875784

See other lists of materials about key figures and themes of the Reconstruction Era within this blog: Laura Towne; Rachel Mather; Charlotte Forten; Missionary Teachers to the Freedmen; Robert Smalls; Abbie Holmes Christensen; and others.

NEWSPAPERS

New South, Free South, Palmetto Herald newspapers, 1862-1866 (BDC, BEA, HHI) Please note: The New South, 1862-1866 is available online at http://www.sc.edu/library/digital/collections/newsouth.html.

Beaufort Republican, 1871-1873 (BDC, BEA)

The Beaufort Tribune, 1874-1876 is available online through the Chronicling America website: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85042623/

Port Royal Commercial and Beaufort County Republican, 1873 -1874 (BDC, BEA)

Palmetto Post, 1882-1906 (BDC, BEA, HHI)

 

(Harper's Weekly March 5, 1870 BDC)

(Harper’s Weekly, March 5, 1870 BDC)

LAND RECORDS

 

Index to and Heads of Family Land Certificates, 1863-1872 [Microfilm] (BDC, HHI)

Tax Sale Certificates 1864 [Microfilm] (BDC, HHI)

Land Sale Certificates, 1869-1870; 1875-1876 [Microfilm] (BDC, HHI)

Township Maps series covering most of Port Royal and St. Helena Islands produced for the South Carolina Tax Commissioners circa 1863. This series of maps include layers of information that sometimes indicates owners prior to hostilities, names and numbers connected with a tax sale certificate number, school farms, etc.

VOTER & MILITIA REGISTRATION

Abstract of Voter Registrations reported to the Military Government, 1868 [Microfilm] (BDC)

Militia Enrollments, 1869 http://www.archivesindex.sc.gov/   Please note: This series consists of militia enrollment books for individual counties in South Carolina. The enrollments were made between June and December of 1869. County volumes are subdivided by township. The lists of male citizens in each township are divided into two categories, those between the ages of eighteen and thirty and those between thirty and forty-five. Information includes name, age, occupation, place of residence, and race. The entries for the city of Columbia include street names under place of residence. The Williamsburg County volume includes the name of landowner, head of household or plantation name under residence. The volumes for Horry, Orangeburg, Laurens, and Oconee counties apparently do not survive.  The Charleston volume includes only wards one through three and a part of ward four.

CENSUS RECORDS

1890 Federal Census of Union Veterans and Widows [Microfilm] (BDC, HHI) Also available electronically in all branch libraries through Ancestry Library Edition database.

1790 – 1880, 1900 – 1930 Federal Census for Beaufort County. [Microfilm] (BDC, HHI) Also available electronically in all branch libraries including 1940 Census through Ancestry Library Edition database.

1870, 1880, 1900-1930 Federal Census for Hampton County. [Microfilm]  (BDC, HHI) Also available electronically in all branch libraries including 1940 Census through Ancestry Library Edition database.

1910-1930 Federal Census for Jasper County. [Microfilm] (BDC, HHI) Also available electronically in all branch libraries including 1940 Census through Ancestry Library Edition database.

 

ILLUSTRATIONS

Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper June 7, 1862 BDC)
Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper June 7, 1862 BDC)

We have a collection of more than 100 illustrated newspaper prints, 1859 – 1920. Search our catalog. (BDC)

 

 

 

 

 

You can check out these materials from Beaufort County Library:

B JOHNSON Andrew Johnson: A Biography by Hans L. Trefousse, Norton, 1989. (HHI)

306.3621 EGE The Wars of Reconstruction: The Brief, Violent History of America’s Most Progressive Era by Douglas R. Egerton, Bloomsbury, 2014. (STH)

306.3621 ROS Rehearsal for Reconstruction: The Port Royal Experiment by Willie Lee Rose, with an introduction by C. Van Woodward, Bobbs-Merrill, [1964]. (ALL)

J 973 HAK Reconstruction and Reform by Joy Hakim, Oxford University Press, 1999. (BEA, BLU, HHI, LOB)

973 SMI Black Voices from Reconstruction, 1865-1877 by John David Smith, Millbrook Press, 1996. (HHI)

973.7 BRO The Civil War and Reconstruction by Ray B. Browne and Lawrence A. Kreiser, Jr., Greenwood Press, 2003. (HHI)

973.71 FON Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War by Eric Foner, Oxford University Prss, 1980. (HHI)

973.8 TRE Historical Dictionary of Reconstruction by Hans L. Trefousse, Greenwood Press, 1991. (BDC, BEA, HHI)

973.8 TRE Reconstruction: The Great Experiment by Allen W. Trelease, Harper & Row, [1971] (HHI)

Confederate Steamer Planter (Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies, Series 1, Volume 12 - BDC)
Confederate Steamer Planter (Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies, Series 1, Volume 12 – BDC)

973.8 EAT The Waning of the Old South Civilization, 1860-1880s by Clement Eaton, University of Georgia Press, [1968]. (BEA)

973.8 ZIF Reconstruction following the Civil War in American History by Marsha Ziff, Enslow Publishers, 1999. (STH)

975 REC Reconstruction edited by Laura K. Egendorf, Greenhaven Press, 2004. (BLU)

975.704 BLE The Promised Land: The History of the South Carolina Land Commission, 1869-1890 by Carol K. Rothrock Bleser, Published for the South Carolina Tricentennial Commission by the University of South Carolina Press, [1969]. (BDC, BLU, HHI)

975.704 REY Reconstruction in South Carolina, 1865-1877 by John Schreiner Reynolds, Negro Universities Press, [1969]. (BEA, BDC)

975.704 THO Ousting the Carpetbagger from South Carolina by Henry T. Thompson, Negro Universities Press, [1969]. (BDC, BEA)

975.704 ZUC State of Rebellion: People’s War in Reconstruction South Carolina, 1865-1877 by Richard M. Zuczek, University of South Carolina Press, 1996. (BDC, BEA, HHI)

975.7096 YES Yes, Lord I Know the Road : A Documentary History of African Americans in South Carolina 1526 – 2008 edited by J. Brent Morris, 2017. (BDC, STH)

975.799 ROW vol. 2 Rebellion, Reconstruction, and Redemption, 1861–1893: The History of Beaufort County, South Carolina by Stephen R. Wise, Lawrence S. Rowland, Alexander Moore and Gerhard Spieler, 2015. (ALL)

975.7992 BEA PT. 2 Beaufort Tricentennial Lecture Series [DVD]: Part 2, February 13, 2009: Sea Island Cotton Kingdom [with Dr. Larry Rowland]; The Idea of a Southern Nation [with Dr. John McCardell, Jr.], Beaufort Three-Century Project and USC-B, 2009. (ALL)

976 ROA Masters without Slaves: Southern Planters in the Civil War and Reconstruction by James L. Roark, Norton, 1977. (BEA)

Come to the Beaufort District Collection to see these items:

MM#3 “Gen. W.T. Sherman, Honey Hill and Gen. W. J. Hardee” by Gerhard Spieler, presented at the United Daughters of the Confederacy, Stephen Elliott Chapter Meeting, 12 January 2005.

SC MAP #617 Beaufort County Reconstruction Sites [Beaufort], Beaufort County, [2003].

SC MAP #618 Beaufort County Reconstruction Sites [Bluffton & Hilton Head], Beaufort County, [2003]. 

SC PRINT #66 The Freedmen’s Bureau drawn by A. R. Waud, Harper’s Weekly, July 25, 1868. (BDC)

SC B HAMPTON Hampton and Reconstruction by Edward L. Wells, The State Company, 1907. (BDC)

SC B SMALLS From Slavery to Public Service: Robert Smalls, 1839 – 1915 by Okon Edet Uya, Oxford University Press, 1971. (BDC)

Robert Smalls Captain of the Gun-boat "Planter" (From Harper's Weekly, June 14, 1862 BDC)
Robert Smalls Captain of the Gun-boat “Planter” (From Harper’s Weekly, June 14, 1862 BDC)

SC 306.3621 BOT 1893 First Days Amongst the Contrabands by Elizabeth Hyde Botume, Lee and Shepard, 1893, c1892. (BDC, HHI SC)

SC 306.3621 ROS Rehearsal for Reconstruction: The Port Royal Experiment by Willie Lee Rose, with an introduction by C. Van Woodward, Bobbs-Merrill, [1964]. (ALL)

SC 306.3621 WIL After slavery; the Negro in South Carolina during Reconstruction, 1861-1877 by Joel Williamson, University of North Carolina Press [1965].  (BDC, BEA, HHI Ref)

SC 320.975 AME The American South Comes of Age [videorecording]: Politics in Transition produced by Alvin H. Goldstein; a co-production of the University of South Carolina, Division of Continuing Education and the Sout Carolina Educational Television Network, [2001?, 1985] (BDC)

SC 336.2013 BRI Sea Islands, Beaufort, S.C. [to accompany bill H.R. No. 2289] by William Henry Brisbane, Washington, D.C.: House of Representatives, 1870.

SC 370 SWI The Northern Teacher in the South, 1862-1870 by Henry Lee Swint, Octagon Books, 1967. (BDC)

SC 973.0496 AT At Freedom’s Door: African American founding fathers and lawyers in Reconstruction South Carolina edited by James Lowell Underwood and W. Lewis Burke, Jr. , University of South Carolina Press,  2000. (BDC)

SC 973.777 ABB The Freedmen’s Bureau in South Carolina, 1865-1872 by Martin Abbott, University of North Carolina Press, 1967. (BDC, HHI SC)

SC 973.8 AVA Dixie after the War: An Exposition of Social Conditions Existing tin the South, during the Twelve Years Succeeding the Fall of Richmond by Myrta Lockett Avary, Da Capo, 1970 [c1906]. (BDC)

SC 973.8 TRE Historical Dictionary of Reconstruction by Hans L. Trefousse, Greenwood Press, 1991. (BDC, BEA, HHI)

SC 973.8175 TRO 1866 The South: A Tour of its battle-fields and ruined cities … education and moral elevation of the freedmen — also, on plans of Reconstruction and inducements to emigration. From personal observations and experience during months of Southern travel by J. T. Trowbridge, L. Stebbins, 1866. (BDC)

SC 973.896 KIN Wounds that Bind [microfiche]: A Comparative Study of the Role Played by Civil War Veterans of African Descent in Community Formation in Massachusetts and South Carolina, 1865-1915 by Lisa Y. King, UMI, 1999. (BDC)

SC 975.7 HOL Black over White: Negro Political Leadership in South Carolina during Reconstruction by Thomas Holt, University of Illinois Press, 1977. (BDC)

SC 975.7 KAN Ben Tillman & the Reconstruction of White Supremacy by Stephen Kantrowitz, University of North Carolina Press, 2000. (BDC)

SC 975.704 ALL Governor Chamberlain’s Administration in South Carolina [1874-1877]: A Chapter of Reconstruction in the Southern States by Walter Allen, Negro Universities Press, reprinted 1969; 1888. (BDC)

SC 975.704 BEA 2003 Beaufort During the Reconstruction Era [VHS]: USCB Forum: [February 25, 2003]/ The Sea Islands Reconstruction Heritage Partnership, [2003]. (BDC)

SC 975.704 BLE The Promised Land: The History of the South Carolina Land Commission, 1869-1890 by Carol K. Rothrock Bleser, Published for the South Carolina Tricentennial Commission by the University of South Carolina Press, [1969]. (BDC, BLU, HHI)

SC 975.704 LAM The Glorious Failure: Black Congressman Robert Brown Elliott and the Reconstruction in South Carolina by Peggy Lamson, Norton, [1973]. (BDC)

SC 975.704 REY Reconstruction in South Carolina, 1865-1877 by John Schreiner Reynolds, Negro Universities Press, [1969]. (BEA, BDC)

SC 975.704 TAY The Negro in South Carolina during the Reconstruction by Alrutheus Ambush Taylor, AMS Press [1971]. (BDC)

SC 975.704 THO Ousting the Carpetbagger from South Carolina by Henry T. Thompson, Negro Universities Press, [1969]. (BDC, BEA)

SC 975.704 WIL Hampton and his Red Shirts: South Carolina’s Deliverance in 1876 by Alfred Brockenbrough Williams, Books for Libraries Press, [1970]. (BDC, HHI SC)

SC 975.704 ZUC State of Rebellion: People’s War in Reconstruction South Carolina, 1865-1877 by Richard M. Zuczek, University of South Carolina Press, 1996. (BDC, BEA, HHI)

SC 975.7096 YES Yes, Lord I Know the Road : A Documentary History of African Americans in South Carolina 1526 – 2008 edited by J. Brent Morris, 2017. (BDC, STH)

SC 975.799 ROW vol. 2 Rebellion, Reconstruction, and Redemption, 1861–1893: The History of Beaufort County, South Carolina by Stephen R. Wise, Lawrence S. Rowland, Alexander Moore and Gerhard Spieler, 2015. (ALL)

SC 975.7992 BEA PT. 2 Beaufort Tricentennial Lecture Series [DVD]: Part 2, February 13, 2009: Sea Island Cotton Kingdom [with Dr. Larry Rowland]; The Idea of a Southern Nation [with Dr. John McCardell, Jr.], Beaufort Three-Century Project and USC-B, 2009. (ALL)

Here is a list of titles selected for the new “Reconstruction Collection” (2017) to be housed in the St. Helena Branch Library, 6355 Jonathan Francis, Sr. Road, St. Helena, SC 29920. For current status please telephone the St. Helena Library at 843.255.6540: 

After Lincoln: How the North Won the Civil War and Lost the Peace by A.J. Langguth

After Slavery: The Negro in South Carolina During Reconstruction, 1861-1877 by Joel Williamson

At Freedom’s Door: African American Founding Fathers and Lawyers in Reconstruction South Carolina by James L. Underwood and W. Lewis Burke

Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery by Leon F. Litwack

Ben Tillman and the Reconstruction of White Supremacy by Stephen Kantrowitz

Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion by Peter H. Wood

Black over White: Negro Political Leadership in South Carolina During Reconstruction by Thomas Holt

Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1880 by W. E. B. Du Bois

The Bloody Shirt: Terror After the Civil War by Stephen Budiansky

But There Was No Peace: The Role of Violence in the Politics of Reconstruction by George Rable

Capitol Men: The Epic Story of Reconstruction Through the Lives of the First Black Congressmen by Philip Dray

The Conservative Regime: South Carolina, 1877-1890 by William J. Cooper

The Day Dixie Died: Southern Occupation, 1865-1866 by Debra Goodrich and Thomas Goodrich.

Declarations of Dependence: The Long Reconstruction of Popular Politics in the South, 1861-1908 by Gregory Downs

The Era of Reconstruction 1865-1877  by Kenneth M. Stampp

Eunice: A Tale of Reconstruction Times in South Carolina : a Novel by William James Rivers ·

The Facts of Reconstruction by John R. Lynch

Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction by Eric Foner

The Freedmen’s Bureau, Politics, And Stability Operations During Reconstruction in The South, by William H. Burks

Freedom’s Lawmakers: A Directory of Black Officeholders during Reconstruction by Eric Foner

The Glorious Failure: Black Congressman Robert Brown Elliott and the Reconstruction in South Carolina by Peggy Lamson

Governor Chamberlain’s administration in South Carolina by Walter Allen

A Hard Fight for We: Women’s Transition from Slavery to Freedom in South Carolina by Leslie A. Schwalm

Hurrah for Hampton! Black Red Shirts in South Carolina during Reconstruction by Edmund L Drago

In the Great Maelstrom: Conservatives in Post-Civil War South Carolina by Charles J.Iden

The Long Reconstruction: The Post-Civil War South in History, Film, and Memory by Frank J. Wetta and Martin A. Novelli

The Negro in South Carolina during Reconstruction by Alrutheus Ambush Taylor

The Ordeal of the Reunion: A New History of Reconstruction by Mark Wahlgren Summers

Pitchfork Ben Tillman, South Carolinian by Francis Butler Simkins and John G. Sproat

The Promise of the New South: Life after Reconstruction by Edward L. Ayers

The Prostrate State: South Carolina Under Negro Government by James Shepherd Pike

Rebellion, Reconstruction and Beyond by Michael James Heitzler

Rebellion, Reconstruction, and Redemption, 1861–1893: The History of Beaufort County, South Carolina by Stephen R. Wise, Lawrence S. Rowland, Alexander Moore and Gerhard Spieler

Rebuilding Zion by Daniel W. Stowell

Reconstructing Dixie: Race, Gender, and Nostalgia in the Imagined South by Tara McPherson

Reconstruction by Eric Foner

Reconstruction by Claudine L. Ferrell

Reconstruction in South Carolina, 1865-1877 by John S. Reynolds

Reconstruction Violence and the Ku Klux Klan Hearings: A Brief History with Documents by Shawn Alexander

Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction by C. Vann Woodward

Reunion without Compromise: The South and Reconstruction: 1865-1868 by Michael Perman

Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction by Jim

The South since the Civil War: As Shown by Fourteen Weeks of Travel and Observation in Georgia and the Carolina by Sidney Andrews

South Carolina in the Civil War and Reconstruction Eras: Essays from the Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Society edited by Michael Brem Bonner and Fritz Hamer

South Carolina Negroes, 1877-1900 by George Brown Tindall

South Carolina Scalawags by Hyman Rubin III

Splendid Failure: Postwar Reconstruction in the American South by Michael W. Fitzgerald

State of Rebellion: Reconstruction in South Carolina by Richard Zuczek

Stories of the South: Race and the Reconstruction of Southern Identity, 1865-1915 by K. Stephen Prince

Terror in the Heart of Freedom: Citizenship, Sexual Violence, and the Meaning of Race in the Postemancipation South by Hannah Rosen

West from Appomattox: The Reconstruction of America after the Civil War by Heather Cox Richardson

The Work of Reconstruction: From Slave to Wage Laborer in South Carolina 1860-1870 by Julie Saville

Yearning to Breathe Free: Robert Smalls of South Carolina and His Families by Andrew Billingsley

Please see our other BDCBCLWordpress blog lists for additional Reconstruction related topics.

Note: If you should choose to download our images, please attribute us with the phrMitchelville Mapase “Image courtesy of Beaufort County Library.” When an image used is credited in this fashion, it increases public awareness of the Beaufort County Library, the Beaufort District Collection, and the contribution that archival and historical collections make to community life throughout our nation.

Originally posted in support of the National Endowment for the Humanities 2015 Summer Institute, America’s Reconstruction | The Untold Story on 7 July 2015; Latest update 10 February 2017.

Published Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License;  Version 4

LEGEND TO MATERIALS LOCATIONS

BDC = Beaufort District Collection
BEA = Beaufort Branch Library
BLU = Bluffton Branch Library
HHI = Hilton Head Branch Library
LOB = Lobeco Branch Library
STH = St. Helena Branch Library
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