“Missionary Teachers to the Freedmen”

“Missionary Teachers to the Freedmen”

BDC New Logo_Blue“Teachers” (Reed Collection, Beaufort County Library, SC)

Compiled by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Beaufort District Collection Manager, Beaufort County Library (SC). Latest revision: 17 April 2017.  All links active on 27 January 2017. (First posted: 21 February 2011)

I. General Treatments of the Era

975.703 CAR  Carse, Robert.  Department of the South: Hilton Head Island in the Civil War. Photographic image on p. 58 of Department of the South by Carse has this caption: “The tents and arbors put up by General Stevens’ men by the Smith plantation house were still in use when this picture was taken, in 1864.” The “Illustrations Credits” on p. x, state that “Photographs in this book are from the United States War Department General Staff and from the private collection of Charles E. Fraser.” (ALL) Digital version on Hathitrust at http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015008292651
975.704 ROS  Rose, Willie Lee Nichols.  Rehearsal for Reconstruction: the Port Royal experiment.  [The most important book about the era as it played out on the Sea Islands in Beaufort District]. (ALL)
SC 975.704 VIG  Vigilante, David. The Port Royal experiment: forty acres and a mule?: a unit of study for grades 8-12. (BDC)
SC 975.799 DAB Dabbs, Edith.  Sea Island Diary: A History of St. Helena Island (BDC, HHI)

975.799 FOR  McCracken, Charles C. The forgotten history: a photographic essay on Civil War Hilton Head Island. (BDC, BLU, HHI)

SC 975.799 MCG McGuire, Mary Jennie.  Getting their hands on the land.  (BDC)

975.799 POR Porcher, Richard and Sarah Fick. The Story of sea island cotton (BDC, BEA, BLU) Has a very useful appendix about the history of individual cotton plantations on St. Helena and Edisto Islands.

SC 975.799 TRI Trinkley, Michael.  The archaeological manifestations of the “Port Royal experiment” at Mitchelville, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. (BDC) Click here to view

SC 975.704 TRI Michael Trinkley. Of Freedom Unto All: An Archaeological Examination of the Port Royal Experiment.Click here to view

SC 975.7 TRI Michael Trinkley. The Lifestyle of Freedmen at Mitchelville, Hilton Head Island: Evidence of a Changing Pattern of Afro-American Archaeological Visibility. (BDC, HHI)  Click here to view

BCHS Paper, 45. “The Great Port Royal Experiment Following the War Between the States,” by W. Brantley Harvey, Jr. (Print available only inside the BDC; on microfilm at BEA, HHI)

BCHS Paper, 53. “Occupation of the Beaufort Area by Northern Forces During the War,” by Roger Pinckney, 10th. (Print available only inside the BDC; on microfilm at BEA, HHI)

BCHS Paper, 62. “William Henry Brisbane: South Carolina Slaveholder and Abolitionist,” by Blake McNulty. (Print available only inside the BDC; on microfilm at BEA, HHI)

SC MM 5 “Connecticut Yankee in a Praise House School” by Dr. Josephine W. Martin, 40th Annual Meeting Address South Caroliniana Society, 21 April 1976. (Photocopy available only inside the BDC).

The Freedmen’s Record: Organ of the New England Freedmen’s Society, vol. 1, 1865 Available on Hathitrust website at http://hdl.handle.net/2027/inu.32000000353468

“The Port Royal Experiment” by Ben Parton in the Essential Civil War Curriculum web series at the Virginia Center for Civil War Studies at Virginia Tech http://www.essentialcivilwarcurriculum.com/the-port-royal-experiment.html

BDC Vertical Files

  • Port Royal Experiment
  • Reconstruction Heritage Partnership
  • History—Reconstruction, 1865-1898
  • Emancipation Oak
    1. See Oaks (tree)
    2. See also Emancipation Proclamation – Commemoration
  • Emancipation Proclamation
  • Emancipation Proclamation – Commemoration

A careful search of the South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine indexes, 1900-1999 is always recommended.

 II. “Smith’s Plantation” [aka “Old Fort” Plantation, J.J. Smith Plantation]

SC 929.2 HOW In Charles Howard Family Domestic History, pp. 105-106 discussion of Emancipation Day ceremony at Smith’s Plantation; his experiences as Sea islands teacher for the newly freedmen, pp. 83-112.


Map #283  Smiths Plantation 26 May 1864

Maps #102 -117, 274, 629 and 804 relate to the Tax Sale of properties 1863 – 1876

Printed Materials

SC 975.799  Penn Center. The Nomination of the “Emancipation Proclamation Site” to the National Register, 1993-1995. Michigan Support Group, no date given. 20 pages.

Annotation: On January 1, 1863, Brigadier General Rufus Saxton told the contraband slaves who had assembled at the John Joiner Smith Plantation that they were formally free. One hundred thirty years later, a re-enactment of that momentous event was staged on the site involving local and state government officials, the 1st South Carolina Volunteers Reenactment group, the Penn Center organization, and interested citizens. This brief but meaty booklet details the nomination of the site for the National Register of Historic Places, supplying copies of the original submission for inclusion and supporting documentation. (gmc)

Web Resources
For a visual treat – in case you are unaware of some of the treasures about Smith’s Plantation in the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs catalog.  Go to http://www.loc.gov/pictures.  Insert the words “Smith’s Plantation Beaufort” in the search box for 9  highly relevant results (as of this revision).

  III. Northern Teachers in Schools for Freed Black People

B FORTEN  A tribute to Charlotte Forten by Roberta Hughes Wright.
SC 371.82996 BUTSchooling the Freed People: Teaching, Learning, and the Struggle for Black Freedom, 1861-1876 by Ronald E. Butchart.
372.757 UNI University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Southern Historical Collection.  The Penn School papers in the Southern Historical Collection of the University of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill.  The finding aid and guide is available online at http://www.lib.unc.edu/mss/inv/p/Penn_School.html.

973.715 BOTFirst days amongst the contrabands by Elizabeth Hyde Botume (BDC, HHI) Available on Internet Archive at https://archive.org/details/firstdaysamongst00botu.

973.8 TEL  Cultivating a new South: Abbie Holmes Christensen and the politics of race and gender, 1852-1938 by Monica Maria Tetzlaff. (ALL)

975.799 JAC Yankee missionaries in the South: the Penn School experiment by Elizabeth Jacoway. (BDC, BEA)

SC 975.799 FIRFirst annual report of the Port Royal relief committee in Concert Hall, Chestnut St., Philadelphia, March 26th, 1863 [Pamphlet photocopy] (BDC)

Microfilm Penn Center, Inc. Penn School Papers, 1862-1976 [33 Microfilm reels, BDC only]

Microfilm The Penn School, 1862-1948 [Microfilm] :  A Look at Negro Education in South Carolina :  Master’s Thesis, UNC-Chapel Hill, 1968.

See also guides to selective materials and links about Penn School, Laura Towne, Charlotte Forten and Rachel Mather.