“Missionary Teachers to the Freedmen”

  “Teachers” (Reed Collection, Beaufort County Library, SC)

Compiled by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Beaufort District Collection Manager, Beaufort County Library (SC). Latest revision: 9 June 2017.  All links active on 9 June 2017. (First posted: 21 February 2011)

Online Resources:

973.715 BOT First days amongst the contrabands by Elizabeth Hyde Botume (BDC, HHI) Available on Internet Archive at https://archive.org/details/firstdaysamongst00botu.

SC 975.7 TRI Michael Trinkley. The Lifestyle of Freedmen at Mitchelville, Hilton Head Island: Evidence of a Changing Pattern of Afro-American Archaeological Visibility. (BDC, HHI)  Click here to view

SC 975.704 TRI Michael Trinkley. Of Freedom Unto All: An Archaeological Examination of the Port Royal Experiment.Click here to view

SC 975.799 TRI Trinkley, Michael.  The archaeological manifestations of the “Port Royal experiment” at Mitchelville, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. (BDC) Click here to view
The Freedmen’s Record: Organ of the New England Freedmen’s Society, vol. 1, 1865 Available on Hathitrust website at http://hdl.handle.net/2027/inu.32000000353468

“The Port Royal Experiment” by Ben Parton in the Essential Civil War Curriculum web series at the Virginia Center for Civil War Studies at Virginia Tech http://www.essentialcivilwarcurriculum.com/the-port-royal-experiment.html

New South newspaper (March 15, 1861 – September 29, 1866) – also online at http://library.sc.edu/digital/collections/newsouth.html

Beaufort Republican newspaper (October 12, 1871 – October 16, 1873) – also online at http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85042623/

For a visual treat in case you are unaware of some of the treasures about Smith’s Plantation in the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs catalog.  Go to http://www.loc.gov/pictures.  Insert the words “Smith’s Plantation Beaufort” in the search box for 9  highly relevant results (as of this revision).

Check out these materials from a SCLENDS Library:

973.77579 ALL 2015 A Yankee Scholar in coastal South Carolina: William Francis Allen’s Civil War Journals edited by James Robert Hester.
973.8 FON Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863 – 1877 by Eric Foner.
973.8 TEL  Cultivating a new South: Abbie Holmes Christensen and the politics of race and gender, 1852-1938 by Monica Maria Tetzlaff.

975.703 CAR  Carse, Robert.  Department of the South: Hilton Head Island in the Civil War. Photographic image on p. 58 of Department of the South by Carse has this caption: “The tents and arbors put up by General Stevens’ men by the Smith plantation house were still in use when this picture was taken, in 1864.” The “Illustrations Credits” on p. x, state that “Photographs in this book are from the United States War Department General Staff and from the private collection of Charles E. Fraser.” Digital version on Hathitrust at http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015008292651

 

975.704 ROS  Rose, Willie Lee Nichols.  Rehearsal for Reconstruction: the Port Royal experiment. This remains the most important book about the era as it played out on the Sea Islands in Beaufort District.

Come to the Beaufort District Collection Research Room to view these materials:

A careful search of the South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine indexes, 1900-1999 is always recommended. We have a complete run of this magazine inside our Research Room.
B FORTEN  A tribute to Charlotte Forten by Roberta Hughes Wright.
SC B WALKER Journal of Miss Susan Walker, March 3d to June 6th, 1862; edited by Henry Nobel Sherwood.
SC 306.3621 CON Constitution of the Educational Commission by the New-England Educational Commission for Freedmen (1862)
SC 306.3621 EDU Educational Commission: Boston, Feb. 20, 1862 by Henry I. Bowditch et al.
SC 306.3621 EXT Extracts from letters of teachers and superintendents of the New-England Educational Commission for Freedmen (1864)
SC 306.3621 PEA Three years among the freedmen: William C. Gannett and the Port Royal Experiment by William H. Pease.
SC 306.3621 WIL After Slavery: The Negro in South Carolina during Reconstruction, 1861 – 1877 by Joel Williamson.
SC 370 SWI The Northern Teacher in the South, 1862-1870 by Henry Lee Swint.
SC 371.82996 BUT Schooling the Freed People: Teaching, Learning, and the Struggle for Black Freedom, 1861-1876 by Ronald E. Butchart.
SC 372.757 UNI University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Library. Southern Historical Collection.  The Penn School papers in the Southern Historical Collection of the University of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill.  The finding aid and guide is available online at http://www.lib.unc.edu/mss/inv/p/Penn_School.html.
SC 378.75799 VIR 2016 Virtue, Liberty, Science : A Legacy of Education in Beaufort County History and Reflections on the Occasion of the Investiture of Dr. Al M. Panu as the second Chancellor of the University of South Carolina Beaufort, 2016.
SC 929.2 HOW In Charles Howard Family Domestic History, pp. 105-106 discussion of Emancipation Day ceremony at Smith’s Plantation; his experiences as Sea islands teacher for the newly freedmen, pp. 83-112.

SC 973 HAN 2000 Bury me not in a land of slaves: African-Americans in the Time of Reconstruction by Joyce Hansen.

973.715 BOT First days amongst the contrabands by Elizabeth Hyde Botume (BDC, HHI) Available on Internet Archive at https://archive.org/details/firstdaysamongst00botu.

973.8 TEL  Cultivating a new South: Abbie Holmes Christensen and the politics of race and gender, 1852-1938 by Monica Maria Tetzlaff.

SC 973.8175 TRO 1866 The South: A Tour of its Battle-fields and ruined cities … and embracing special notes on the free labor system, education and moral elevation of the freedmen …. by J. T. Trowbridge
SC 975.704 VIG  Vigilante, David. The Port Royal experiment: forty acres and a mule?: a unit of study for grades 8-12. (BDC)
SC 975.799 DAB Dabbs, Edith.  Sea Island Diary: A History of St. Helena Island (BDC, HHI)
SC 975.799 FIR First annual report of the Port Royal relief committee in Concert Hall, Chestnut St., Philadelphia, March 26th, 1863 [Pamphlet photocopy] (BDC)
975.799 FOR  McCracken, Charles C. The forgotten history: a photographic essay on Civil War Hilton Head Island. (BDC, BLU, HHI)
SC 975.799 MCG McGuire, Mary Jennie.  Getting their hands on the land. (BDC)
975.799 JAC Yankee missionaries in the South: the Penn School experiment by Elizabeth Jacoway. (BDC, BEA)
975.799 POR Porcher, Richard and Sarah Fick. The Story of sea island cotton (BDC, BEA, BLU) Has a very useful appendix about the history of individual cotton plantations on St. Helena and Edisto Islands.

SC 975.799 PEN The Nomination of the “Emancipation Proclamation Site” to the National Register, 1993-1995. Michigan Support Group of Penn Center, no date given. 20 pages.

Annotation: On January 1, 1863, Brigadier General Rufus Saxton told the contraband slaves who had assembled at the John Joiner Smith Plantation that they were formally free. One hundred thirty years later, a re-enactment of that momentous event was staged on the site involving local and state government officials, the 1st South Carolina Volunteers Reenactment group, the Penn Center organization, and interested citizens. This brief but meaty booklet details the nomination of the site for the National Register of Historic Places, supplying copies of the original submission for inclusion and supporting documentation. (gmc)

975.799 TOW Letters and diary of Laura M. Towne: written from the Sea Islands of South Carolina, 1862 – 1884, edited by Rupert Sargent Holland

BCHS Paper, 45. “The Great Port Royal Experiment Following the War Between the States,” by W. Brantley Harvey, Jr. (Print available only inside the BDC; on microfilm at BEA, HHI)

BCHS Paper, 53. “Occupation of the Beaufort Area by Northern Forces During the War,” by Roger Pinckney, 10th. (Print available only inside the BDC; on microfilm at BEA, HHI)

BCHS Paper, 62. “William Henry Brisbane: South Carolina Slaveholder and Abolitionist,” by Blake McNulty. (Print available only inside the BDC; on microfilm at BEA, HHI)

 

SC MM 5 “Connecticut Yankee in a Praise House School” by Dr. Josephine W. Martin, 40th Annual Meeting Address South Caroliniana Society, 21 April 1976. (Photocopy available only inside the BDC).

BDC Vertical Files

  • Port Royal Experiment
  • Reconstruction Heritage Partnership
  • History—Reconstruction, 1865-1898
  • Emancipation Oak
    1. See Oaks (tree)
    2. See also Emancipation Proclamation – Commemoration
  • Emancipation Proclamation
  • Emancipation Proclamation – Commemoration
  • Gannett, William Channing (1840-1923)
  • Towne, Laura Matilda (1825-1901)
  • Grimke, Charlotte Lottie Forten (1837-1914)
  • Schools – Mather School

Maps

Map #283  Smiths Plantation 26 May 1864

Maps #102 -117, 274, 629 and 804 relate to the Tax Sale of properties 1863 – 1876

Microfilm

Penn Center, Inc. Penn School Papers, 1862-1976 [33 Microfilm reels, BDC only]

The Penn School, 1862-1948 [Microfilm] :  A Look at Negro Education in South Carolina :  Master’s Thesis, UNC-Chapel Hill, 1968.

New South newspaper (March 15, 1861 – September 29, 1866) – also online at http://library.sc.edu/digital/collections/newsouth.html

Free South newspaper (January 17, 1863 – November 19, 1864)

Palmetto Herald newspaper (March 17, 1864 – December 29, 1864)

Beaufort Republican newspaper (October 12, 1871 – October 16, 1873) – also online at http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn85042623/

Port Royal Commercial and Beaufort County Republican newspaper (October 23, 1873 –

April 1874)

Palmetto Post newspaper (January 5, 1882 – December 27, 1906)

See also guides to selective materials and links about Penn School, Laura Towne, Charlotte Forten and Rachel Mather.
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