Beaufort District Area Cemeteries

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The Beaufort District Collection, the special local history collection and archives of the Beaufort County Library, SC, recommends these links and materials about historic cemeteries in Beaufort, Jasper, Hampton, and Colleton counties, South Carolina.

Please note: There has not been a systematic inventory of the cemeteries in Beaufort County to date.

Some of the materials below include lists of the names of the interred; some materials do not include a grave-by-grave inventory of every person buried at that location. Few graves of the enslaved were marked as social mores of the time prevented this. Even up into the 20th century, wooden markers often indicated burial site as many persons were unable to afford the cost of importing a stone or metal tombstone to mark a loved one’s grave.  Due to the lowcountry climate, many of these wooden markers have decayed so much so that the identity of the interred has been lost.

This list of selected links and materials was compiled by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Manager of the Beaufort District Collection,  on 3 February 2016. All links accessible 3 February 2016.

Web based resources:

The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names, contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, including identified cemeteries. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. The database search screen is found at http://geonames.usgs.gov/apex/f?p=136:1:15444121763206. A query on Beaufort County South Carolina cemeteries resulted in a list of 53 cemeteries. It appears that the list does not include cemeteries located on or beside a church or synagogue. Hence this is not a complete list of all cemeteries in Beaufort County. [Please note: Map in the table below refers to the U.S. Geological Survey 7.5 minute topographical map quadrant designations.]

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You can see the names of individuals interred in the Beaufort National Cemetery through the Interment.net: Cemetery Records Online database http://www.interment.net/data/us/sc/beaufort/beaunat/index.htm

0530002200596
(Beaufort County Library Postcard Collection)

Grave Matters: The Preservation of African-American Cemeteries by Chicora Foundation, 1996 is available as a PDF document at http://www.chicora.org/pdfs/Grave%20Matters%20-%20The%20Preservation%20of%20African%20American%20Cemeteries.pdf

Our Online Obituary Index lists the names of individuals for whom there were published obituaries in local newspapers beginning in 1862. For an explanation of coverage and how to search this local database, please go to http://www.beaufortcountylibrary.org/htdocs-sirsi/bdc/obithow.htm

Come to the Beaufort District Collection to see these items:

The Research Room has a number of clippings files on the topic of cemeteries:

  • Cemeteries
  • Cemeteries – Jasper County
  • Cemeteries – Hampton County
  • Beaufort National Cemetery

MICROFILM Index to Burial Orders for Individuals who died at Hilton Head Military Hospitals from 1862 – 1865, 1994.

SC MAP #608 Cemetery at Baptist Church of Beaufort: Charles Street, Beaufort, SC, 1981.

WP_20150318_15_08_25_Pro.Maxcy-double-grave
(Staff photo taken at Old Sheldon Churchyard in 2015)

SC 282.75799 HIS 2013 History of St. Peter’s Catholic Church and graveyard by the History Committee of the Historic Church Preservation Task Force, 2013.

SC 282.75799 SAI Saint Peter Catholic Church: Beaufort, South Carolina: Reverend Father Timothy D. Tebalt, Pastor; Graveyard Task Force Report, June 30, 2011 by the Saint Peter Catholic Church Graveyard Task Force, 2011.

SC 283.757 SAT Cemetery Survey of the Wesley United Methodist Church Beaufort, South Carolina by Jennifer D. Satterthwaite, 2000.

SC 363.75 BRI Forgotten Souls: A look at five Beaufort cemeteries: A thesis submitted to the faculty of the Historic Preservation Department in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Arts, The Savannah College of Art and Design by Amanda C. Britton (Worbeck) [sic], 2003.

SC 363.75 WIN 2011 Windows in time: Documentation mapping and management recommendations for eight historic cemeteries at Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort: June 22, 2010: Final Report by New South Associates, 2011.

SC 363.75757 BEA 1996 Beaufort County Cemetery Inventory Survey [1996] submitted by the Historic Preservation Department of the Savannah College of Art and Design, 1996.

SC 363.75757 ST St. Helena Island Cemetery Survey 1999: Version: 15 October 1999 by Historic Beaufort Foundation, 1999.

SC 393 GRA Grave Matters: The Preservation of African-American Cemeteries by Chicora Foundation, 1996. [Available as an online document: http://www.chicora.org/pdfs/Grave%20Matters%20-%20The%20Preservation%20of%20African%20American%20Cemeteries.pdf]

SC 393 WRI Lay down body : living history in African American cemeteries by Roberta Hughes Wright and Wilbur B. Hughes III, 1995.

SC 929 MAL Cemeteries of Jasper County : a project of the Jasper County Historical Society, South Carolina, 1994-1996 by Wofford E. Malphrus, 2001.

SC 929.5 BAP Burials in the Baptist Church of Beaufort cemetery as of 24 March 2003 by the Baptist Church of Beaufort, 2003.

SC 929.5 BRY Cemeteries of upper Colleton County, South Carolina by Evelyn McDaniel Frazier Bryan and Gibson Howard Bryan, c1974.

SC 929.5 BUR Burial orders for individuals who died at Hilton Head Military Hospitals from 1862-1865, [no date]. Note: You can get this data from the “Beaufort National Cemetery” portion of http://www.interment.net/data/us/sc/beaufort/beaunat/index.htm provided you have the person’s name. 

SC 929.5 FAR Obituaries and biographical information of Jews from Beaufort, SC buried in Beth Israel Cemetery and elsewhere by Stanley B. Farbstein, 2008.

SC 929.5 INS  Inscriptions on gravestones in cemeteries: Beaufort County, [no date].

SC 929.5 PR Old churchyard cemetery of St. Helena’s Episcopal Church, Beaufort, South Carolina.Beaufort, SC : James Cawood Presgraves and S. Louise Presgraves 1987.

(Lucille Hasell Culp Collection)
(Lucille Hasell Culp Collection, Beaufort County Library)

SC 975.7 BAT An archaeological survey of the 5.74 heactare (14.18 acre) proposed expansion of the Beaufort National Cemetery, Beaufort County, South Carolina by Daphne L. Owens, 2002.

SC 975.799 BAI 1996 Archaeological reconnaissance, Davis Road Mine Site, Beaufort County, South Carolina: October 1996 prepared for Cleland Construction Company, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina by Ralph Bailey, Jr., Archaeologist, 1996.

SC 975.799 GRE Archaeological investigation of a 22-acre tract on Daufuskie Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina – Final Report submitted to William Scott, Hilton Head Island, SC by TRC Garrow Associates, Inc.; Submitted by William Green (N.S./PRA) – Principal Investigator; M. Virginia Markham and Jennifer S. Revels – Authors, 2001.

SC 975.799 GRE 2001 Archaeological investigation of a 22-acre tract on Daufuskie Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina – Final Report, Project #31370 [Phase I]. July 2001 submitted to Mr. William Scott submitted by TRC Garrow Associates, Inc. by William Green, Principal Investigator; authored by M. Virginia Markham, Jennifer S. Revels and William Green, 2001.

SC 975.799 KAR Stoney Creek Cemetery by Michael Alexander Karnath, [2007?].

SC 975.799 LEP 1988 Dataw Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina: Cultural Resources Survey: March, 1998 by Larry Lepionka, [1988].

SC 975.799 POP Recent archaeological investigations on Dataw Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina prepared for The Dataw Historical Foundation, Dataw Island, SC by Eric C. Poplin, Principal Investigator; Gwendolyn Burns, GPR Specialist and Andrew Agha, Archaeologist, 2006.

SC 975.799 SEY Daufuskie Island: A blending of architecture and tradition in the South Carolina lowcountry: A thesis statement submitted to the faculty of the Historic Preservation Department in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Fine Arts at the Savannah College of Art and Design: July 2006 by Kathy K. Seyalioglu, 2006.

SC 975.799 STA Phase II cultural resource investigations at sites 38BU1904, 38BU1905, and 38BU1906 on Daufuskie Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina – Final Report submitted by William Scott, Hilton Head Island, SC by TRC Garrow Associates, Inc., submitted by William F. Stanyard (M.S./RPA) -Principal investigator, Ramona Grunden, Jennifer Revels & William Green, 2001. 

SC 975.799 STA 2001 Phase II cultural resource investigations at sites 38BU1904, 38BU1905, and 38BU1906 on Daufuskie Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina – Final Report, Project #33062: October 2001 submitted to Mr. William Scott, Hilton Head Island, SC submitted by TRC Garrow Associates, Inc., William F. Stanyard, Principal investigator; authored by William F. Stanyard, Ramona Grunden, Jennifer Revels and William Green, 2001. 

Check out these materials from the Beaufort County Library:

Hilton Head Branch Library provides access to clippings files:

  • Cemeteries SC [only at Hilton Head Branch Library ]
  • Cemeteries Hilton Head [only at Hilton Head Branch Library]

SC 975.703 IND Index to Burial Orders for Individuals who died at Hilton Head Military Hospitals from 1862 – 1865, 1994.

Note: Current hours and branch locations are posted on the Beaufort County Library’s (SC) website.

Reconstruction Period in Beaufort, South Carolina, 1862 – 1893

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As Dr. J. Brent Morris wrote on the America’s Reconstruction | The Untold Story website: “The Reconstruction Era was literally a period of rebuilding … The ending of slavery not only brought freedom to African Americans but also inaugurated a complex reshaping of fundamental American institutions including the lawmaking process, family structure, church organization, and the very definition of American citizenship itself.” Reconstruction left an especial imprint on the Lowcountry as it began in our locality late in 1861 and is said to have ended locally only with the death of Robert Smalls in 1915. Here we include works covering the gamut of historical interpretations of the period, from seeing the period as an unwarranted and hateful domination of the South by the victorious Union, to those that conclude Reconstruction was a tragic missed opportunity to establish equal rights for all American citizens. This list of selective materials and links was compiled by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Beaufort District Collection Manager. The Beaufort District Collection is the special local history collection and archives unit of the Beaufort County Library (SC).

(Originally posted in support of the National Endowment for the Humanities 2015 Summer Institute, America’s Reconstruction | The Untold Story: 7 July 2015; Latest update 24 February 2016.)

Published Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License;  Version 4

Primary Source Materials:

DIARIES & PERSONAL ACCOUNTS

Rev. George Newcomb 1864 Journal (Transcription) [stored in vertical file, Newcomb, George (Rev.)]

“Notes and Extracts from Letters – Beaufort, S.C., 1862 – 1863, during Occupancy by Federal Troops” by Kate Foote and Harriet Foote Hawley (wife of Colonel, afterwards General Joseph H. Hawley.) [Typescript given to Beaufort Township Library on 25 January 1939, by Harriet Ward Foote Taylor (Mrs. Herbert A. Taylor) of Cleveland, OH.] [Typescript is filed in the “Miscellaneous Materials on Topics of Local Interest” box]

SC 306.3621 BOT 1893 First Days Amongst the Contrabands by Elizabeth Hyde Botume, Lee and Shepard, 1893, c1892. (BDC, HHI SC) Available on Internet Archive at https://archive.org/details/firstdaysamongst00botu.

SC 306.3621 EXT Extracts from letters of teachers and superintendents of the New-England Educational Commission for Freedmen, 4th series, 1864.

SC 371.1 JOU The Journals of Charlotte Forten Grimké edited by Brenda Stevenson, 1988 (BDC, HHI SC)

SC 371.1. JOU Journals of Charlotte Forten, edited by Ray Allen Billington, 1953. (BDC, HHI SC) Also available online through Hathitrust http://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.$b92760

SC 973.77579 LET Letters from Port Royal written at the time of the Civil War, edited by Elizabeth Ware Pearson, 1906.

SC 973.781 BAL Dudley Baldwin’s Letters from Hilton Head, 1863-1864, 1977.

SC 975.799 TOW Letters and diary of Laura M. Towne:Written from the Sea Islands of South Carolina, 1862-1884, 1912. (This edition only in BDC). There is an Internet Archive e-version of the 1912 edition of this book at https://archive.org/details/cu31924074445267. Other editions available at ALL. Also available online through Hathitrust at http://hdl.handle.net/2027/wu.89098875784

NEWSPAPERS

New South, Free South, Palmetto Herald newspapers, 1862-1866 (BDC, BEA, HHI) Please note:The New South, 1862-1866 is available online at http://www.sc.edu/library/digital/collections/newsouth.html.

Beaufort Republican, 1871-1873 (BDC, BEA)

Port Royal Commercial and Beaufort County Republican, 1873 -1874 (BDC, BEA)

Palmetto Post, 1882-1906 (BDC, BEA, HHI)

LAND RECORDS

Index to and Heads of Family Land Certificates, 1863-1872 [Microfilm] (BDC, HHI)

Tax Sale Certificates 1864 [Microfilm] (BDC, HHI)

Land Sale Certificates, 1869-1870; 1875-1876 [Microfilm] (BDC, HHI)

Township Maps series covering most of Port Royal and St. Helena Islands produced for the South Carolina Tax Commissioners circa 1863. This series of maps include layers of information that sometimes indicates owners prior to hostilities, names and numbers connected with a tax sale certificate number, school farms, etc.

VOTER REGISTRATION

Abstract of Voter Registrations reported to the Military Government, 1868 [Microfilm] (BDC)

CENSUS RECORDS

1890 Federal Census of Union Veterans and Widows [Microfilm] (BDC, HHI)

1790 – 1880, 1900 – 1930 Federal Census for Beaufort County. [Microfilm] (BDC, HHI) Also available electronically in all branch libraries through Ancestry Library Edition database.

1870, 1880, 1900-1930 Federal Census for Hampton County. [Microfilm]  (BDC, HHI) Also available electronically in all branch libraries through Ancestry Library Edition database.

1910-1930 Federal Census for Jasper County. [Microfilm] (BDC, HHI) Also available electronically in all branch libraries through Ancestry Library Edition database.

ILLUSTRATIONS

Some images from our collection were digitized for the America’s Reconstruction | The Untold Story, Summer Institute for Teachers, July 2015.  We posted those on our own Reconstruction web page at http://www.beaufortcountylibrary.org/reconstruction/imagesNote: If you should choose to download our images from this website, please attribute us with the phrase “Image courtesy of Beaufort County Library.” When an image used is credited in this fashion, it increases public awareness of the Beaufort County Library, the Beaufort District Collection, and the contribution that archival and historical collections make to community life throughout our nation.

We have a collection of more than 100 illustrated newspaper prints, 1859 – 1920.(BDC)

You can find additional primary sources through review of our other Lists & Links selected for our Reconstruction Era page http://www.beaufortcountylibrary.org/reconstruction.

You can check out these materials from Beaufort County Library:

B JOHNSON Andrew Johnson: A Biography by Hans L. Trefousse, Norton, 1989. (HHI)

306.3621 EGE The Wars of Reconstruction: The Brief, Violent History of America’s Most Progressive Era by Douglas R. Egerton, Bloomsbury, 2014. (STH)

306.3621 ROS Rehearsal for Reconstruction: The Port Royal Experiment by Willie Lee Rose, with an introduction by C. Van Woodward, Bobbs-Merrill, [1964]. (ALL)

J 973 HAK Reconstruction and Reform by Joy Hakim, Oxford University Press, 1999. (BEA, BLU, HHI, LOB)

973 SMI Black Voices from Reconstruction, 1865-1877 by John David Smith, Millbrook Press, 1996. (HHI)

973.7 BRO The Civil War and Reconstruction by Ray B. Browne and Lawrence A. Kreiser, Jr., Greenwood Press, 2003. (HHI)

973.71 FON Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War by Eric Foner, Oxford University Prss, 1980. (HHI)

973.8 TRE Historical Dictionary of Reconstruction by Hans L. Trefousse, Greenwood Press, 1991. (BDC, BEA, HHI)

973.8 TRE Reconstruction: The Great Experiment by Allen W. Trelease, Harper & Row, [1971] (HHI)

973.8 EAT The Waning of the Old South Civilization, 1860-1880s by Clement Eaton, University of Georgia Press, [1968]. (BEA)

973.8 ZIF Reconstruction following the Civil War in American History by Marsha Ziff, Enslow Publishers, 1999. (STH)

975 REC Reconstruction edited by Laura K. Egendorf, Greenhaven Press, 2004. (BLU)

975.704 BLE The Promised Land: The History of the South Carolina Land Commission, 1869-1890 by Carol K. Rothrock Bleser, Published for the South Carolina Tricentennial Commission by the University of South Carolina Press, [1969]. (BDC, BLU, HHI)

975.704 REY Reconstruction in South Carolina, 1865-1877 by John Schreiner Reynolds, Negro Universities Press, [1969]. (BEA, BDC)

975.704 THO Ousting the Carpetbagger from South Carolina by Henry T. Thompson, Negro Universities Press, [1969]. (BDC, BEA)

975.704 ZUC State of Rebellion: People’s War in Reconstruction South Carolina, 1865-1877 by Richard M. Zuczek, University of South Carolina Press, 1996. (BDC, BEA, HHI)

975.7992 BEA PT. 2 Beaufort Tricentennial Lecture Series [DVD]: Part 2, February 13, 2009: Sea Island Cotton Kingdom [with Dr. Larry Rowland]; The Idea of a Southern Nation [with Dr. John McCardell, Jr.], Beaufort Three-Century Project and USC-B, 2009. (ALL)

976 ROA Masters without Slaves: Southern Planters in the Civil War and Reconstruction by James L. Roark, Norton, 1977. (BEA)

Come to the Beaufort District Collection to see these items:

MM#3 “Gen. W.T. Sherman, Honey Hill and Gen. W. J. Hardee” by Gerhard Spieler, presented at the United Daughters of the Confederacy, Stephen Elliott Chapter Meeting, 12 January 2005.

SC MAP #617 Beaufort County Reconstruction Sites [Beaufort], Beaufort County, [2003].

SC MAP #618 Beaufort County Reconstruction Sites [Bluffton & Hilton Head], Beaufort County, [2003]. 

SC PRINT #66 The Freedmen’s Bureau drawn by A. R. Waud, Harper’s Weekly, July 25, 1868. (BDC)

SC B HAMPTON Hampton and Reconstruction by Edward L. Wells, The State Company, 1907. (BDC)

SC B SMALLS From Slavery to Public Service: Robert Smalls, 1839 – 1915 by Okon Edet Uya, Oxford University Press, 1971. (BDC)

SC 306.3621 BOT 1893 First Days Amongst the Contrabands by Elizabeth Hyde Botume, Lee and Shepard, 1893, c1892. (BDC, HHI SC)

SC 306.3621 ROS Rehearsal for Reconstruction: The Port Royal Experiment by Willie Lee Rose, with an introduction by C. Van Woodward, Bobbs-Merrill, [1964]. (ALL)

SC 320.975 AME The American South Comes of Age [videorecording]: Politics in Transition produced by Alvin H. Goldstein; a co-production of the University of South Carolina, Division of Continuing Education and the Sout Carolina Educational Television Network, [2001?, 1985] (BDC)

SC 336.2013 BRI Sea Islands, Beaufort, S.C. [to accompany bill H.R. No. 2289] by William Henry Brisbane, Washington, D.C.: House of Representatives, 1870.

SC 370 SWI The Northern Teacher in the South, 1862-1870 by Henry Lee Swint, Octagon Books, 1967. (BDC)

SC 973.777 ABB The Freedmen’s Bureau in South Carolina, 1865-1872 by Martin Abbott, University of North Carolina Press, 1967. (BDC, HHI SC)

SC 973.8 AVA Dixie after the War: An Exposition of Social Conditions Existing tin the South, during the Twelve Years Succeeding the Fall of Richmond by Myrta Lockett Avary, Da Capo, 1970 [c1906]. (BDC)

SC 973.8 TRE Historical Dictionary of Reconstruction by Hans L. Trefousse, Greenwood Press, 1991. (BDC, BEA, HHI)

SC 973.8175 TRO 1866 The South: A Tour of its battle-fields and ruined cities … education and moral elevation of the freedmen — also, on plans of Reconstruction and inducements to emigration. From personal observations and experience during months of Southern travel by J. T. Trowbridge, L. Stebbins, 1866. (BDC)

SC 973.896 KIN Wounds that Bind [microfiche]: A Comparative Study of the Role Played by Civil War Veterans of African Descent in Community Formation in Massachusetts and South Carolina, 1865-1915 by Lisa Y. King, UMI, 1999. (BDC)

SC 975.7 HOL Black over White: Negro Political Leadership in South Carolina during Reconstruction by Thomas Holt, University of Illinois Press, 1977. (BDC)

SC 975.7 KAN Ben Tillman & the Reconstruction of White Supremacy by Stephen Kantrowitz, University of North Carolina Press, 2000. (BDC)

SC 975.704 ALL Governor Chamberlain’s Administration in South Carolina [1874-1877]: A Chapter of Reconstruction in the Southern States by Walter Allen, Negro Universities Press, reprinted 1969; 1888. (BDC)

SC 975.704 BEA 2003 Beaufort During the Reconstruction Era [VHS]: USCB Forum: [February 25, 2003]/ The Sea Islands Reconstruction Heritage Partnership, [2003]. (BDC)

SC 975.704 BLE The Promised Land: The History of the South Carolina Land Commission, 1869-1890 by Carol K. Rothrock Bleser, Published for the South Carolina Tricentennial Commission by the University of South Carolina Press, [1969]. (BDC, BLU, HHI)

SC 975.704 LAM The Glorious Failure: Black Congressman Robert Brown Elliott and the Reconstruction in South Carolina by Peggy Lamson, Norton, [1973]. (BDC)

SC 975.704 REY Reconstruction in South Carolina, 1865-1877 by John Schreiner Reynolds, Negro Universities Press, [1969]. (BEA, BDC)

SC 975.704 TAY The Negro in South Carolina during the Reconstruction by Alrutheus Ambush Taylor, AMS Press [1971]. (BDC)

SC 975.704 THO Ousting the Carpetbagger from South Carolina by Henry T. Thompson, Negro Universities Press, [1969]. (BDC, BEA)

SC 975.704 WIL Hampton and his Red Shirts: South Carolina’s Deliverance in 1876 by Alfred Brockenbrough Williams, Books for Libraries Press, [1970]. (BDC, HHI SC)

SC 975.704 ZUC State of Rebellion: People’s War in Reconstruction South Carolina, 1865-1877 by Richard M. Zuczek, University of South Carolina Press, 1996. (BDC, BEA, HHI)

SC 975.7992 BEA PT. 2 Beaufort Tricentennial Lecture Series [DVD]: Part 2, February 13, 2009: Sea Island Cotton Kingdom [with Dr. Larry Rowland]; The Idea of a Southern Nation [with Dr. John McCardell, Jr.], Beaufort Three-Century Project and USC-B, 2009. (ALL)

LEGEND TO MATERIALS LOCATIONS

BDC = Beaufort District Collection
BEA = Beaufort Branch Library
BLU = Bluffton Branch Library
HHI = Hilton Head Branch Library
LOB = Lobeco Branch Library
STH = St. Helena Branch Library

Beaufort District’s Role in Forming and Adopting the US Constitution

The Beaufort District Collection, the special local history collection and archives of the Beaufort County Library system (SC), occasionally prepares presentations from our holdings for library programs and outreach efforts.  The Emily Geiger Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution asked me to speak to their group in March 2014 on the topic of the United States Constitution.  The end result was a presentation on the role that Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Pierce Butler and John Keans of Beaufort District played in the formation and adoption of United States Constitution.  Below is my source list informing that presentation.

Online Resources:

Historical Statistics of the United States, 1786 – 1945: A Supplement to the Statistical Abstract of the United States prepared by the Bureau of the Census in cooperation with the Social Science Research Council, 1949 found at http://www2.census.gov/prod2/statcomp/documents/HistoricalStatisticsoftheUnitedStates1789-1945.pdf

Letter of Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 28 February 1796, Thomas Jefferson Papers at the Library of Congress found at http://memory.loc.gov/

“U.S. Debt and Foreign Loans, 1775–1795,” US Department of State, Office of the Historian https://history.state.gov/milestones/1784-1800/loans and “Our History” page http://www.publicdebt.treas.gov/history/history.htm

Independence National Historical Park website, http://www.nps.gov/inde/index.htm

“The Charters of Freedom: A New World is at Hand,” National Archives website found at http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/

The Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution as Recommended by the General Convention at Philadelphia in 1787 together with the Journal of the Federal Convention… in Five volumes, 2nd ed. with considerable additions collected and revised from Contemporary Publications by Jonathan Elliot found at http://www.constitution.org/elliot.htm. Volume 4 contains the “Debates in the Legislature and in Convention of the State of South Carolina, on the adoption of the Federal Constitution” at http://www.constitution.org/rc/rat_sc-l.htm and http://www.constitution.org/rc/rat_sc-c.htm.

Biographical Directory of the United States Congress http://bioguide.congress.gov/

South Carolina Archives Records Online Index database http://www.archivesindex.sc.gov/Default.html

“Notes on the Debates in the Federal Convention” (The Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History, and Diplomacy, Yale University Law School http://avalon.law.yale.edu).

Day-by-Day Summary of the Convention http://teachingamericanhistory.org/convention/summary/

Some of John Kean’s letters to his wife Susan have been digitized by the Liberty Hall Museum on Kean University in New Jersey. See http://www.kean.edu/libertyhall/TeachersResource/pdf/letters/JohnKean_to_SusanKean_11-28-1787.pdf and others. (These letters can be viewed and downloaded to your computer.)

You can check out these materials from Beaufort County Library:

973.2 AME American Eras: Vol. 4, Development of a Nation, 1783 -1815 edited by Robert J. Allison, Gale Research, 1997. (BEA, HHI)

LH 975.799 CHR Biography of an Island: General C.C. Pinckney’s Sea Island Plantation by Merrill G. Christopherson, Westburg Associates Publishers, 1976. (BDC, BEA, BLU, HHI)

975.791 ROG Charleston in the Age of the Pinckneys by George C. Rogers, University of South Carolina Press, 1980. (BDC, BEA, BLU, HHI)

920 WIL  A Founding Family: The Pinckneys of South Carolina by Frances Leigh Williams, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1978. (BDC, BLU)

973.336 BOR A Gallant Defense: The Siege of Charleston, 1780 by Carl P. Borick, University of South Carolina Press, 2003. (SCLENDS)

LH 975.7 LIN Historical Atlas of the Rice Plantations of the ACE River Basin- 1860 by Suzanne Cameron Linder, Published by the South Carolina Department of Archives and History for the Archives and history Foundation, Ducks Unlimited, and the Nature Conservancy, 1995. (BDC, BLU, HHI)

975.799 ROW “Beaufort District and the New Nation,” chapter 14 of History of Beaufort County, South Carolina, vol. 1, 1514- 1861 by Lawrence S. Rowland, George C. Rogers, and Alexander Moore, University of South Carolina Press, 1996. (ALL)

975.8 BEL  Major Butler’s Legacy: Five Generations of a Slaveholding Family by Malcolm Bell, Jr., University of Georgia Press, 1987. (BEA, HHI)

REF 975.73 SOU South Carolina Encyclopedia edited by Walter Edgar, Humanities Council of South Carolina, University of South Carolina Press, 2006.  Entries for “Butler, Pierce,” “Pinckney, Charles,” “Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth,”  and “Rutledge, John.” (ALL)

Come to the Beaufort District Collection to see these materials:

BDC Vertical Files: Butler Family; Pinckney family; Pinckney, Charles C., (1746-1825)

“Newspaper Sketches of Noted South Carolinians of the Past” (card files in the Research Room)

SC B PINCKNEY Charles Cotesworth Pinckney: Founding Father by Marvin R. Zahniser,  Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, VA, by the University of North Carolina Press, 1967. (also HHI Low Country Room).

SC B PINCKNEY Forgotten Founder: The Life and Times of Charles Pinckney by Marty D. Matthews, University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

SC 328.7574 SOU Journal of the Convention of South Carolina which ratified the Constitution of the United States, May 23, 1788 by the United States Constitution Bicentennial Commission of South Carolina [1988].

SC 328.7574 SOU Journals of the House of Representatives 1787-1788, edited by Michael E. Stevens and Christine M. Allen, Published for the South Carolina Department of Archives and History by the University of South Carolina Press, 1981.

SC 342.73 JOU Journal of the Convention of South Carolina which ratified the Constitution of the United States May 23, 1788, indexed by A.S. Salley, Jr., Printed for the Historical Commission of South Carolina by Foote & Davies, 1928.

SC 920 WIL  A Founding Family: The Pinckneys of South Carolina by Frances Leigh Williams, Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1978. (also BLU)

SC 975.7 LIN Historical Atlas of the Rice Plantations of the ACE River Basin- 1860 by Suzanne Cameron Linder, Published by the South Carolina Department of Archives and History for the Archives and history Foundation, Ducks Unlimited, and the Nature Conservancy, 1995. (BDC, HHI, also at BLU)

SC 975.7 SOU “’I am afraid to venture until the new Constitution’”: John Kean and the Ratification Debate in South Carolina” by John Mercantini, South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, vol. 114 #3, July 2014, 192- 209.

SC 975.791 ROG Charleston in the Age of the Pinckneys by George C. Rogers, University of South Carolina Press, 1980. (also BEA, BLU, HHI)

SC 975.799 CHR Biography of an Island: General C.C. Pinckney’s Sea Island Plantation by Merrill G. Christopherson, Westburg Associates Publishers, 1976. (also BEA, BLU, HHI)

SC 975.799 PET “Petition for the Restoration of Pinckney Island, on behalf of the heirs of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Major General in the Revolutionary Army,” W.H. Moore, Printer, 1867.

975.799 ROW “Beaufort District and the New Nation,” chapter 14 of History of Beaufort County, South Carolina, vol. 1, 1514- 1861 by Lawrence S. Rowland, George C. Rogers, and Alexander Moore, University of South Carolina Press, 1996. (ALL)

SC 975.799 TOD Prince William’s Parish and Plantations by John R. Todd and Francis M. Hutson with an introduction by A.S. Salley, Garrett and Massie, 1935.

SC 975.73 SOU South Carolina Encyclopedia edited by Walter Edgar, Humanities Council of South Carolina, University of South Carolina Press, 2006.  Entries for “Butler, Pierce,” “Pinckney, Charles,” “Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth,”  and “Rutledge, John.” (ALL)

Legend: ALL = All branches of the Beaufort County Library; BDC = Beaufort District Collection; BEA = Beaufort Branch; BLU = Bluffton Branch; HHI = Hilton Head Island Branch; LOB = Lobeco Branch; and STH = St. Helena Branch

Original post: 15 September 2014; All links verified on 15 September 2014.

Phosphate Industry in Beaufort County, 1867 – 2005 : List of Materials & Links

The Beaufort District Collection, the special local history collection and archives of the Beaufort County Library, SC, recommends these materials and links about the history of phosphate mining in South Carolina and its long-term impact on the course of Southern industry after the Civil War. This list of selected materials and links was compiled by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Manager of the Beaufort District Collection, May 9, 2014; Latest update June 29, 2015.

BDC New Logo_Blue  "Mill Complex," from our Donner Collection

Online Resources:

“Phosphate, Farms, and Family: The Donner Collection,” Digital Images hosted online through the Lowcountry Digital Library, Copyright to the images is owned by the Beaufort County Library. The collection is posted at http://lcdl.library.cofc.edu/content/phosphate-farms-and-family-donner-collection. Accessed 6.29.2015.

Conrad Munro Donner (1844 – 1916) and his brother, Leonard Donner, moved to Beaufort around the mid-1880s as mining engineers for the Pacific Guano Mining Company. Few images of phosphate mining operations in Beaufort County are known to exist. The 35 images that Conrad Donner took of the Pacific Guano Company, a phosphate mining company operating on Chisolm Island, are especially important as they show key aspects of an industry crucial to the post-Civil War economy of Beaufort.

The University of South Carolina has a digital collection of Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps posted at http://library.sc.edu/digital/collections/sanborn.html. Select “Beaufort” as the City. Choose “1894” to see the 1894 Sanborn Insurance Fire Insurance Maps for Beaufort, including lay-outs for Baldwin Fertilizer Company, Coosaw Company, Sea Island Chemical Company, Phosphate Mining Company, Hume Brothers Company Fertilizer Works, Beaufort Phosphate Company, and Hammond Hull and Company Fertilizers Manufacturers. Accessed 6.29.2015.

“The Story of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory Woods Hole, Massachusetts 1885 – 1958,” by Paul S. Galtsoff accessed from the “NOAA history: A Science Odyssey” website http://www.history.noaa.gov/stories_tales/wh.html. Last accessed 5.9.2014.

The Pacific Guano and Fertilizer Company opened a branch in Hawaii in 1927. In the intervening years, the company had other names. “BEI Hawaii: Our History, est’d 1890,” provides some background about the Pacific Guano company’s activities on its company website, http://beihawaii.com/company_info.html; last accessed 6.29.2015

The Pacific Guano and Fertilizer Company was based at Woods Hole, MA from 1863 – 1889. “Woods Hole: The Early Years” explains that history. Accessed from http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/history/stories/whistory.html; last accessed 6.29.2015.

Bird guano contains valuable minerals useful to agriculture. “Tern Island: History” excerpted with permission from The Natural History of French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands [by] A. Binion Amerson, Jr. Paper Number 79, Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. explains the discovery of bird guano in Hawaii.  Accessed from website http://www.wfu.edu/biology/albatross/hawaii/history.htm; last accessed 6.29.2015.

“Guano Island Act Allows U.S. Possession of Islands Containing Bird Droppings,” by Matt Rosenberg.  About.com Guide, accessed from http://geography.about.com/od/politicalgeography/a/guanoisland.htm; last accessed 6.29.2015.

 Check out these materials from the Beaufort County Library:

338.2 WHI The History of Phosphate Mining in Beaufort County, 1870-1914 by Richard A. Whitney, Beaufort County Historical Society, 1989. (BDC, BEA, HHI)

338.2764 MCK Stinking stones and rocks of gold: phosphate, fertilizer, and industrialization in Postbellum South Carolina by Shepherd W. McKinley, University Press of Florida, [2014]. (ALL)

975.799 MCT Beaufort, now and then, by J. E. McTeer, Beaufort Book Co. [c1971]. (Part 1 includes a section on the Phosphate era.) (ALL)

975.7992 BEA PT.4 Beaufort Tricentennial Lecture Series: Part 4, February 27, 2009: Reconstruction [with Dr. Larry Rowland]; 20th century Beaufort [with Drs. Larry Rowland and Stephen Wise]. [DVD] (BDC, BEA, BLU, HHI, LOB)

LEGEND: BDC= Beaufort District Collection; BEA= Beaufort Branch; BLU= Bluffton Branch; HHI= Hilton Head Branch; LOB= Lobeco Branch; and, STH= St. Helena Branch

Visit the Beaufort District Collection Research Room to access these Special Collections and Archival Materials:

338.2764 MCK Stinking stones and rocks of gold: phosphate, fertilizer, and industrialization in Postbellum South Carolina by Shepherd W. McKinley, University Press of Florida, [2014]. (ALL)

SC 553.64 MAP The Phosphate Industry of South Carolina by Helen Florilla Mappus, unpublished, 1935.

SC 557.56 CHA The century in phosphates and fertilizers: a sketch of the South Carolina phosphate industry by Philip E. Chazal, Lucas-Richardson Lithography & Printing, Co., 1904.

SC 557.56 COO Geology of the coastal plain of South Carolina by C. Wythe Cooke, Washington, U.S. Government. Printing Office, 1936.

SC 557.57 HOL Phosphate Rocks of South Carolina and the “Great Carolina Marl Bed,” with five colored illustrations by Francis S. Holmes, Holmes’ Book House, 1870.

SC 975.701 SOU “A History of the Phosphate Mining Industry in the South Carolina Lowcountry with a New Focus on Ashley Phosphate Company”, vol. 38 in South Carolina Antiquities: the first 40 years: contributed papers concerning the archaeology of South Carolina and the Southeast, 1968-2008 edited by Carl Steen. [DVD], 2009.

SC PRINT #30 “South Carolina: The Charleston Phosphate Industry: Scenes and Incidents of the Preparation of the Material for Market,” Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, June 30, 1877.

SC MAP #174 Map of the state of South Carolina, drawn, engraved & printed by G.W. & C.B. Colton & Co. SC Dept. of Agriculture, 1883.

SC MAP #610 Map showing land owned by the Port Royal Co. by Chas. Boeckh,(Engineer), 2004, 1891.

SC MAP #616 Map of parts of Charleston, Colleton & Beaufort Counties S. C., compiled from various sources by Simons & Howe, Civil Engineers. Julius Bien & Co., [1879?]

“Phosphate, Farms, and Family: The Donner Collection,” Digital Images hosted online through the Lowcountry Digital Library, Copyright to the images is owned by the Beaufort County Library. The collection is posted at http://lcdl.library.cofc.edu/content/phosphate-farms-and-family-donner-collection.

There is also a file of research materials about the Conrad and Leonard Donner family in the Beaufort District Collection archives.  See the archivist for access.

“Phosphate Mines and Mining” vertical file

Selected Content of the Beaufort District Collection permanent “Phosphate Mines and Mining” vertical file: 

The State of South Carolina v. South Carolina Phosphatic CompanyEquity Decree Book, (1867-1876), BDC Microfilm, 1038-4296.

“The South Carolina Phosphates.” Beaufort Republican, January 30, 1873, p. 2.

“A Curious Complication.” Beaufort Republican, May 22, 1873, p. 2.

“Our Beaufort Phosphates.” Beaufort Republican, May 23, 1873, p. 2.

“The Phosphates.” Beaufort Republican, May 29, 1873, p. 2.

“Abstract of Laws Relating to Phosphate Mining.” Columbia, SC: Presbyterian Publishing House, 1879. [photocopy of fragile pamphlet held in BDC collection]

“Movement of Phosphate Rock,” Palmetto Post, July 10, 1884, p. [3].

Jones, Nelson. (Obituary) Palmetto Post, August 14, 1884, p. 3.

“The Scotch dredge a failure: Getting ready to take her back to her builders,” Palmetto Post, July 9, 1885, p. 3.

“Industries of the South: Conversion of South Carolina Phosphates into Fertilizers,” Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, June 30, 1877, p. 286.

“The largest yet.” Palmetto Post, September 22, 1887, p. 3.

“Killing the goose that lays the golden egg,” editorial column, Palmetto Post, November 11, 1887, p. 2; transcription by Grace Morris Cordial 11.3.2004 for ease of use.

“More about phosphate,” editorial column, Palmetto Post, November 17, 1887, p. 2; transcription by Grace Morris Cordial 11.3.2004 for ease of use.

“The shipments of phosphate rock for the….” Palmetto Post, September 5, 1889, p. 2.

“The Coosaw Situation.” Palmetto Post, March 12, 1891, p. 2.

“The Phosphate Fight.” Palmetto Post, March 12, 1891, [p. 2].

“The Coosaw Case.” Palmetto Post, March 26, 1891, [p. 2].“Beaufort River Rock.” Palmetto Post, April 6, 1882, p. 3; transcription by Grace Morris Cordial 1.24.2004 for ease of use.

“Coosaw Ready to Pay.” Palmetto Post, June 11, 1891, [p. 2].

“Coosaw Loses.” Palmetto Post, April 7, 1892, [p. 2].

Extracts from the 1894 Sanborn Insurance maps for Beaufort, including lay-outs for Baldwin Fertilizer Company, Coosaw Company, Sea Island Chemical Company, Phosphate Mining Company, Hume Brothers Company Fertilizer Works, Beaufort Phosphate Company, and Hammond Hull and Company Fertilizers Manufacturers,” taken from our Sanborn Insurance Maps microfilm for ease of use. The University of South Carolina has a digital collection of Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps posted at http://library.sc.edu/digital/collections/sanborn.html. Accessed 5.9.2014.

“The Phosphate Royalty.” Palmetto Post, November 5, 1896, [p. 1].

“Interesting To Phosphate Men.” Palmetto Post, January 28, 1897, [p. 2].

“Phosphatic. The State Board of Phosphate Commissioners.” Palmetto Post, April 1, 1897, p. 3.

“To Go Out of Business.” (Coosaw Mining Company). Palmetto Post, April 15, 1897, p. 2.

“Last of Coosaw,” Palmetto Post, April 29, 1897, [p. 2].

“Christensen to the Front.  An Alive Citizen Makes Work for Industrious Idleness,” Palmetto Post, October 21, 1897, p. 3.

[In the Social column], “Mr. J. W. Varn, superintendent of the Empire Phosphate Company’s plant on Ladies’ Island, was in town Tuesday.” Palmetto Post, October 11, 1900, [p. 2].

“To Inspect Phosphatic Waters,” Beaufort Gazette, February 11, 1904, p. 1.

“The Phosphate Situation,” Beaufort Gazette, March 31, 1904, [p. 2].

“Purchase of Coosaw Mines,” Beaufort Gazette, January 25, 1906, [p. 2].

“The New Phosphate Works.” Beaufort Gazette, December 6, 1906, [p. 1].

“Benjamin C. Odell Dead: Former Prominent Beaufort Citizen dies in Colorado home.” (Obituary) Beaufort Gazette, December 29, 1916, p. 1.

“Use for Beaufort’s Phosphate Rock,” in Willet’s Weekly Letter (column), Beaufort Gazette, November 25, 1921, p. 6.

“Carolina Phosphate Mining Industry.” Beaufort Gazette, January 19, 1923, p. 1; typescript by Grace Morris Cordial 1.28.2003 for ease of use.

“The Strangest and Most Mystical Product on South Carolina’s Coast,” by N. L. Willet. Beaufort Gazette, January 26, 1928, p. 2.

“Mines” entry from the Martin Index (typescript) to the newspapers, pp. 142-143. (circa 1936)

“Phosphate Mining Set-Up Planned.” Beaufort Gazette, April 2, 1936, p. 1.

“$3,000,000 Concern gets 5 Year Phosphate License.” Beaufort Gazette, April 9, 1936, p. 1.

“State Board of Phosphate Commissioners Approves License for Coastal Mining.” Beaufort Gazette, April 23, 1936, p. 1. (image)

“Ten Year License Phosphate Bill.” Beaufort Gazette, March 11, 1937, p. 1.

“Phosphate Industry may be revived in this area.” Beaufort Gazette, May 3, 1956, p. 4.

“The Phosphate Fortunes: A once-thriving industry soon may be resurrected,” by James C. Felder. News and Courier, October 6, 1963, p. 6-C.

“N.C. Firm to explore phosphate deposits: $15 to $20 million plant may be constructed here,” by James B. Waring, Beaufort Gazette, July 2, 1964, p. 1.

“Low Country Comments,” by Gerhard G. Spieler.   Beaufort Gazette, December 14, 1972, p. 3D.

“Chisolm Island Recalls Phosphate Mining Days,” by Gerhard Spieler. Beaufort Gazette, April 25, 1974, p. 9.

“The South Carolina Phosphate Boom and the stillbirth of the New South, 1867-1920,” by Tom W. Shick and Don H. Doyle, South Carolina Historical Magazine, vol. 86, no. 1 (1985), pp. 1 – 31.

Excerpt from South Carolina: A Geography by Charles F. Kovacik and John Winberry (Westview Press, 1987), pp. 112, 114, 116-117. (has map)

“Phosphates replaced cotton in Sea Island economy,” by Gerhard Spieler. Beaufort Gazette, February 13, 1990, p. 5-C.

“The Nineteenth century Pacific Guano Trade,” by Dan O’Donnell. Article originally published in the Bulletin of the Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology (1995): 19.2: 27-32.

“Diversity called key to economic health,” by Chuck Easterling. Beaufort Gazette, Centennial Supplement, April 12, 1997, p. 44.

Excerpt from Cultural Resources Reconnaissance Burlington Plantation Tract Beaufort County, South Carolina” prepared for Ernest Enterprises, Beaufort, South Carolina by Eric C. Poplin and Bruce G. Harvey. (Atlanta, GA: Brockington and Associates, Inc., 1997), p. 24.

“South Carolina” [(showing major producing areas of specific mineral products) from the] South Carolina Geological Survey/U.S. Geological Survey (2000). (map)

Excerpt from The Great Sea Island Storm of 1893 by Bill and Fran Marscher. (Authors Choice Press, 2001), pp. 8-11, 78-79.

“The Years of Early Hawaii.” [printed from old BEI , Inc. web page. No address indicated.[Likely accessed June 2001 when Donner project was on-going.] Not accessible 6 February 2004; Not accessible 6.24.2011.

“High arsenic, lead levels found along Beaufort River,” by Ian Leslie. Beaufort Gazette, February 5, 2004, pp. 1A, 7A. (image)

“Arsenic, lead found in soil,” by Lolita Huckaby. Carolina Morning News, February 6, 2004, pp. 1A, 4A.

“Company History.” Accessed and printed from the company’s web site http://www.beihawaii.com/company_history.htm on 6 February 2004. Unable to access 6.24.2011.

“Radio Swan & Radio Americas: The Guano Paradise, the CIA, and the Bay of Pigs…” http://www.trsc.com/ref_radio_swan_Americas.html Accessed and printed on 6 February 2004; Not accessible 6.24.2011.

“Vital Statistics: Phosphate” from Drillbits & Tailings, vol. 5, #2, February 14, 2000. http://www.moles.org/ProjectUnderground/drillbits/5_02/vx.html Accessed and printed on 6 February 2004; last accessed 6.24.2011. Not accessible 6.29.2015.

“The U.S. Guano Act of 1856.” Accessed and printed from the website http://www.followingtheequator.com/history/fte_actof1856.htm on February 6, 2004; last accessed 6.24.2011. Not accessible 6.29.2015.

“Guano Wars: ICE Case Studies.” Accessed and printed from the website http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/guano.htm on February 6, 2004; last accessed 6.24.2011. Not accessible 6.29.2015.

The 2004 National Site Assessment Symposium of the Environmental Protection Agency was held in San Diego, CA, June 28 – June 30, 2004. One of the presenters, Jonathan McInnis, shared a slideshow called “South Carolina Site Discovery Initiative,” that included references to the phosphate industry. The slides were printed from the website, http://www.epa.gov/superfund/programs/siteasmt/symp04/pdfs/scdiscovery1.pdf , on May 2, 2005. The document was not accessible 6.24.2011.

“The Story of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory Woods Hole, Massachusetts 1885 – 1958,” by Paul S. Galtsoff accessed and printed from the “NOAA history: A Science Odyssey” website http://www.history.noaa.gov/stories_tales/wh.html on 3.21.2005. Last accessed 6.29.2015.

“EPA holding public meeting on impacted soil and sediment,” Beaufort Gazette, August 12, 2005, p. 2A.

“BEI Hawaii: Our History, est’d 1890,” accessed and printed from the company’s website, http://beihawaii.com/company_info.html on 6.24.2011. Last accessed 6.29.2015

“Woods Hole: The Early Years.” Accessed and printed from http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/history/stories/whistory.html printed on 6 February 2004; last accessed 6.29.2015.

“Tern Island: History” excerpted with permission from The Natural History of French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands [by] A. Binion Amerson, Jr. Paper Number 79, Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Accessed and printed from website http://www.wfu.edu/biology/albatross/hawaii/history.htm on 6 February 2004; last accessed 6.29.2015.

“Guano Island Act Allows U.S. Possession of Islands Containing Bird Droppings,” by Matt Rosenberg.  About.com Guide, accessed and printed from http://geography.about.com/od/politicalgeography/a/guanoisland.htm on 6.24.2o11. Last accessed 6.29.2015.

Note: Please check the Library system’s homepage for current hours of operation and locations.

Harriet Tubman and the Combahee River Raid: A Selective List of Links & Materials

BDC Panel Logo with Tagline JPG

Harriet Tubman, 1821 – 1913, sought first her own freedom and then facilitated the freedom of others through the Underground Railroad. She came to Beaufort District, South Carolina during the Civil War as a scout, nurse and spy helping bring freedom to hundreds of enslaved African Americans living along the Combahee River in June 1863.

The Beaufort District Collection (BDC) exists to acquire, preserve, maintain and make accessible a research collection of permanent value which records the history, culture, and environment of the South Carolina lowcountry wedged between the Combahee (pronounced “Kum’ bee”) and Savannah Rivers.  BDC staff and docents are stewards who collect, protect and share unique historical materials about local history, Gullah culture, natural southeastern coastal environment, family history and archaeology of the area now covered by Beaufort County, Hampton County and Jasper counties in South Carolina.

indexOnline Resources:

Biography in Context database (DISCUS password required for access from home)

Harriet Tubman: Online Resources compiled by Angela McMillian,  (Library of Congress) http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/tubman

Harriet Tubman http://www.harriettubman.com/

New York History Net: “Harriet Tubman Home” http://www.nyhistory.com/harriettubman

PBS: Africans in America, People and Events, Harriet Tubman http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1535.html

View Tubman’s claim for compensation of her services as a scout, cook, nurse and spy during the Civil War at http://www.archives.gov/legislative/features/claim-of-harriet-tubman/

Several federal historic monuments and trails commemorating the life and work of Harriet Tubman are on the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge managed by the United States Fish & Wildlife Service. Learn more at http://www.fws.gov/refuge/Blackwater/about/harriettubman.html.

The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History has a lot of information about Harriet Tubman at https://www.gilderlehrman.org/search/gli_search/Harriet%20Tubman. You’ll have to register with the Institute to access some of the materials but registration is free. Once you register you’ll have access to more than 100 podcasts by eminent scholars on all eras of American history.
The History Channel highlights 6 videos and 3 photo galleries about Harriet Tubman at http://www.history.com/topics/harriet-tubman.
Harriet Tubman and the Combahee River Raid,” by James DeWolf Perry, Tracing Center website.  The Tracing Center’s “mission is to create greater awareness of the extent of the nation’s complicity in slavery and the transatlantic slave trade and to inspire acknowledgement, dialogue and active response to this history and its many legacies. We do this for the purpose of racial justice, healing, and reconciliation, for the benefit of all.  http://www.tracingcenter.org/blog/2013/06/harriet-tubman-and-the-combahee-river-raid/
Combahee River Raid – 150th Anniversary” by Grace Morris Cordial, Beaufort District Collection Connections blog includes a transcription of the Commanding officer’s report to Major-General David Hunter, Commanding Tenth Army Corps, Department of the South as given in the Supplement to the Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, volume 14, serial 20, p. 104. http://beaufortdistrictcollectionconnections.blogspot.com/2013/06/combahee-river-raid-150th-anniversary.html
“Harriet Tubman on the $20 Bill?” by Matthew Wills , 22 May 2015 JSTOR Daily http://daily.jstor.org/harriet-tubman-20-bill/ 

“Anti-slavery Activist Harriet Tubman to replace Jackson on $20 Bill” by Gregory Korte, USA Today, 21 April 2016 http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2016/04/20/report-lew-considered-anthony-10-bill/83274530/

“Treasury Decides to Put Harriet Tubman on $20 Bill” NPR, 20 April 2016 http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/04/20/474983292/treasury-decides-to-put-harriet-tubman-on-20-bill

“Harriet Tubman will be Face of the $20”

“Trump: Tubman on the $20 bill is ‘pure political correctness'” by David Wright, CNN, 21 April 2016 http://www.cnn.com/2016/04/21/politics/donald-trump-tubman-bill-political-correctness/

Check out these materials from the Beaufort County Library:

B TUBMAN Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom by Catherine Clinton, 2004 (BEA, HHI)

B TUBMAN Harriet Tubman: Myth, Memory and History by Milton C. Sernott, 2007 (BEA)

B TUBMAN A Woman called Moses [videorecording] by Paul Wendkos, 1991 (LOB, STH)

305.8961 FRE Freedom Comin’ [DVD] : A Gullah Kinfolk Wish by Anita Singleton-Prather, 2006 (BDC, BEA, BLU, HHI, LOB)

306.3622 CHR Freeing Charles: The Struggle to Free a Slave on the Eve of the Civil War by Scott Christianson, 2010 ( BEA, BLU)

624.27579 DED The Dedication of the Harriet Tubman Bridge : [Saturday,] October 18, 2008 [DVD], Michael Allen, speaker (BDC, BEA, BLU, HHI, STH)

920 GRE Great Women in American History, V.1 [DVD] by Devin Stead, 1996 (BLU)

Visit the Beaufort District Collection to see these items:

Tubman, Harriet (1820-1913) [BDC Vertical File] includes among other clippings an English translation of “Gender, Race, and the Idea of Separate Spheres: Neo-Abolitionist Work in South Carolina Sea Islands,” by Wakako Araki originally written in Japanese. Japanese Association for American Studies , no. 19, 2008.

Combahee River Raid, 2 June 1863 [BDC Vertical File]

SC PRINT #43 “Raid of Second South Carolina Volunteers (Col. Montgomery) among the rice plantations on the Combahee, S.C,” Harper’s Weekly, 1863.

Harper's Weekly, BDC Print #43                                                                            Combahee River Raid, Harper’s Weekly (Beaufort District Collection)

Contact gracec@bcgov.net for a list of additional materials in the Beaufort County Library system about Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad.

LEGEND: BDC=Beaufort District Collection; BEA=Beaufort Branch; BLU=Bluffton Branch; HHI=Hilton Head Branch; LOB=Lobeco Branch; and, STH=St. Helena Branch

Note: Please check the Library system’s homepage for current hours of operation and locations.

This list of links and materials was selected by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Manager of the Beaufort County Library’s (SC) special local history collection and archives unit, the Beaufort District Collection.  First posted: 3 February 2012; Latest revision: 6 June 2016.

All links verified as of 6 June 2016.

Mitchelville: The First Freedman’s Village, A List of Materials & Links

BDC New Logo_Blue   Mitchelville, an historic site on Hilton Head Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina, is considered by many to be the first post-Civil War settlement for freed slaves with a government structure led by and administered by former slaves. This list of links and materials was selected by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Manager of the Beaufort County Library’s (SC) special local history collection and archives unit, the Beaufort District Collection.

The Beaufort District Collection (BDC) exists to acquire, preserve, maintain and make accessible a research collection of permanent value which records the history, culture, and environment of the South Carolina lowcountry wedged between the Combahee (pronounced “Kum’ bee”) and Savannah Rivers.  BDC staff and docents are stewards who collect, protect and share unique historical materials about local history, Gullah culture, the natural southeastern coastal environment, family history and archaeology of the area now covered by Beaufort County, Hampton County and Jasper County.

Web Based Resources:

“In 2005, a diverse group of Hilton Head Island citizens joined forces to preserve, protect and promote the heritage of Mitchelville, America’s first post-Civil War settlement for freed slaves … through the Mitchelville Preservation Project, Inc.,  a 501 (c) 3 non-profit organization whose mission is to replicate, preserve, and sustain an historically significant site and to educate the public about the sacrifice, resilience and perseverance of the freedmen of Mitchelville and to share the story of how these brave men and women planted strong and enduring familial roots for generations of future African-Americans.” Mitchelville Map

In Freedom’s Shadow: The Reconstruction Legacy of Renty Franklin Greaves of Beaufort County, South Carolina,” by Giselle White-Perry, Prologue (Fall 2010), vol. 42, no. 3.

Mitchelville: The Hidden Town at Dawn of Freedom,” by Peter Jackson, BBC News Magazine, 29 February 2012.

Mitchelville” in Wikipedia

The Negroes,” a New South newspaper notice at the beginning of what became known as Mitchelville, New South, October 4, 1862, p. 3.

The Gullah: Hilton Head, SC a YouTube video (2008) about this unique culture with Emory Campbell.

The New South was a weekly newspaper published by the Union postmaster, Joseph S. Sears, beginning  in March 1862.  The newspaper moved to Beaufort sometime in 1865 and ceased publication in 1867. The New South has been digitized by the University of South Carolina and is available online.  Researchers should bear in mind that articles about the Freedmen’s Village do not always contain the word “Mitchelville.”  Thus a careful reading of all 67 surviving issues of the New South newspaper is likely to result in a broader understanding of the contemporary circumstances of the village’s establishment.

975.704 TRI Of Freedom Unto All: An Archaeological Examination of the Port Royal Experiment by Michael Trinkley.  Chicora Foundation, Research Contribution 20, 1987. Available online as PDF download through Chicora Foundation at http://www.chicora.org/research-contributions.html.

SC 975.7 TRI The Lifestyle of Freedmen at Mitchelville, Hilton Head Island: Evidence of a Changing Pattern of Afro-American Archaeological Visibility by Michael Trinkley.  Chicora Foundation Research Contribution 21, 2001.  Available in the BDC and HHI as well as available online as PDF download through Chicora Foundation at http://www.chicora.org/research-contributions.html.

SC 975.799 CHI Indian and Freedmen Occupation at the Fish Haul Site (38BU805), Beaufort County, South Carolina, edited by Michael Trinkley, Chicora Foundation, Research Series 7, 1986.  Available in the BDC and also available online as PDF downloads in sections through Chicora Foundation at http://www.chicora.org/researchseries.html

SC 975.799 MIT Mitchelville: Experiment in Freedom by Chicora Foundation, 1995.  Available in hardcopy in the BDC and in HHI and also available online through SCIway.net website beginning with the page at http://www.sciway.net/hist/chicora/mitchelville.html.

SC 975.799 TRI The Archaeological Manifestations of the the “Port Royal Experiment” in Mitchelville, Hilton Head Island, [Beaufort County] South Carolina by Michael Trinkley.  Chicora Foundation, Research Contribution 14, [1987].   Available in the BDC and available online as a PDF download through Chicora Foundation at http://www.chicora.org/research-contributions.html

Check Out These Materials for the Beaufort County Library:

REF 975.799 FOR The Forgotten History: A Photographic Essay on Civil War Hilton Head Island by Charles C. McCracken, 1993.  (BDC, HHI, BLU)

975.799 SIN Hidden History of Hilton Head by Alice E. Sink.  History Press, 2010. (ALL)

Visit the Beaufort District Collection To See These Items:

SC MAP #618 Beaufort County Reconstruction Sites [Bluffton and Hilton Head]. Created by Beaufort County, [2003.]

SC MAP #750 Town of Hilton Head: Historic Mitchelville: 1864. Aerial map. Reproduction made by the Planning Department, Town of Hilton Head Island, 2009.

SC 305.8961 MCC 2012 Gullah culture: 1670 to 1950 by David B. McCoy, Spare Change Press, 2012.

SC 352.1508 BEA Beaufort County Legislative Delegation [DVD], August 31, 2009.

SC 975.7 TRI  The Lifestyle of Freedmen at Mitchelville, Hilton Head Island: Evidence of a Changing Pattern of Afro-American Archaeological Visibility by Michael Trinkley.  Chicora Foundation Research Contribution 21, 2001.  Available in the BDC and HHI as well as available online as PDF download through Chicora Foundation at http://www.chicora.org/research-contributions.html.

SC 975.704 BEA Beaufort during the Reconstruction Era, USCB Forum: [February 25, 2003] by Marge Yanker and others, The Partnership, 2003. [VHS]

SC 975.799 CHI Indian and Freedmen Occupation at the Fish Haul Site (38BU805), Beaufort County, South Carolina, edited by Michael Trinkley, Chicora Foundation, Research Series 7, 1986.  Available in the BDC and also available online as PDF downloads in sections through Chicora Foundation at http://www.chicora.org/researchseries.html

REF 975.799 FOR The Forgotten History: A Photographic Essay on Civil War Hilton Head Island by Charles C. McCracken, 1993.  (BDC, HHI, BLU)

SC 975.799 MIT Da Spirit of Freedom Lives in We: The Scrapbook of a Native Islander by Johnnie Patterson Mitchell, [1996].

SC 975.799 MIT  Mitchelville: Experiment in Freedom by Chicora Foundation, 1995.  Available in hardcopy in the BDC and in HHI and also available online through SCIway website beginning with the page at http://www.sciway.net/hist/chicora/mitchelville.html.

SC 975.799 TRI The Archaeological Manifestations of the the “Port Royal Experiment” in Mitchelville, Hilton Head Island, [Beaufort County] South Carolina by Michael Trinkley.  Chicora Foundation, Research Contribution 14, [1987].   Available in the BDC and available online as a PDF download through Chicora Foundation at http://www.chicora.org/research-contributions.html

Mitchelville [BDC Vertical File] contains many newspaper clippings, mostly as of this writing still available within the Island Packet newspaper online archives. The Mitchelville vertical file also contains: “Fort Mitchel defended Union’s island headquarters” by Gillian Flaccus, Island Packet, August 30, 1999, pp. 1A, 11A; “Memories of Mitchelville – Freedom Gained and Lost” by Lisa M. Collins, Beaufort Gazette, November 15, 1998, p. C1; and, “Beaufort County village of freed slaves recognized,” Carologue, Summer 1995, p. 7.

Hilton Head Branch Library has its own Mitchelville – Civil War Hilton Head [HHI Vertical File] which may include clippings and other materials different from those found in the Beaufort District Collection’s clipping folder on Mitchelville.

The Beaufort District Collection, Beaufort Branch, and Hilton Head Branch have microfilm of the locally based Civil War era newspapers, the New South, the Free South, and the Palmetto Herald.

Location Codes:  ALL = All units of the Beaufort County Library have the physical item; BDC = Beaufort District Collection; BEA = Beaufort Branch Library; BLU = Bluffton Branch Library; HHI = Hilton Head Branch Library; LOB = Lobeco Branch Library; STH = St. Helena Branch Library.

Note: Please check the Library system’s homepage for current hours of operation and locations.

List prepared by Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA, Beaufort District Collection Manager; Original post: 1 August 2013; All links were active on 6 June 2016; Latest Revision: 6 June 2016

History of Hilton Head Island: Links & Materials

BDC Panel Logo with Tagline JPG

History of Hilton Head Island: A List of Links & Materials

Hilton Head Island figures prominently in the history of Beaufort District. Native Americans wandered over the area for centuries before it was first noted by Spanish and English explorers during the 16 & 17th centuries. Sea Island cotton was invented on the island in the late 18th century. During the Civil War era, Mitchelville, one of the first self-governing African American Freedmen’s villages, was established here. Sea Pines Plantation was  among the first planned gated retirement communities established in the United States during the 1950s. Home of the Heritage Golf Classic, Hilton Head Island is a premier tourism mecca.

The Beaufort District Collection (BDC) exists to acquire, preserve, maintain and make accessible a research collection of permanent value which records the history, culture, and environment of the South Carolina lowcountry wedged between the Combahee (pronounced “Kum’ bee”) and Savannah Rivers.  BDC staff and docents are stewards who collect, protect and share unique historical materials about local history, Gullah culture, natural southeastern coastal environment, family history and archaeology of the area now covered by Beaufort County, Hampton County and Jasper counties in South Carolina.

Authors

  • Grace Morris Cordial, MLS, SL, CA Beaufort District Collection Manager, Beaufort County Library

Published: Feb 20, 2013

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Version 5

Last edited: All links verified as of June 6, 2016.

A timeline of the history of Hilton Head Island as given by the Coastal Discovery Museum but posted on the Internet on the Town of Hilton Head Island website.

Overall best general history:

975.7 HIL Hilton Head Island: a television history [videorecording] by Southeastern Ecological Institute. Columbia, S.C.: SCETV, no date.  [BDC, HHI]

Best book length history before development of Sea Pines Plantation:

975.799 HOL Hilton Head: A sea island chronicle by Virginia C. Holmgren. Hilton Head Island: Hilton Head Island Publishing Co. c1959. [BDC, BEA, BLU, HHI, STH]

Best book length history mid-1950s to around 1990:

333.7 DAN Profits and politics in paradise: the development of Hilton Head Island by Michael N. Danielson; with the assistance of Patricia R.F. Danielson. Columbia, S.C. : University of South Carolina Press, c1995.  Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. 301-315) and index. [BDC, BEA, HHI]

See also: Hilton Head Island entry in SC Encyclopedia, pp. 444-445 for three column entry. [ALL]

BDC Vertical Files [available only in the Research Room, 2nd floor, 311 Scott Street, Beaufort]

  • Hilton Head Island (Town)–Government
  • Hilton Head Island
  • Hilton Head Island–Statistics
  • Hilton Head Island–History
  • Fraser, Charles Elbert (1929-2002)

Nancy N. Ciehanski Papers, 1969 – 2001; bulk 1980-1984

Nancy N. Ciehanski arrived on Hilton Head Island in 1979 where she worked for a short time as an Administrative Assistant to Charles E. Fraser.  She quickly became very involved in the political life on Hilton Head Island. She served on at least ten community groups that painstakingly investigated the incorporation of Hilton Head Island into a municipality.  She was elected to serve on the Town of Hilton Head Island’s first municipal council becoming Mayor pro tempore in 1983, and was actively involved with environmental groups and the Hilton Head Island Member-at-Large Unit of the League of Women Voters.  Finding Aid available upon request: gracec@bcgov.net or call 843-255-6446.

On Microfilm

Island Packet newspaper [BEA, HHI]

Harman Collection of Hilton Head [Microfilm] donated by Jeanne Harman; materials organized and indexed by Virginia Adams, Library Volunteer, 1994.  Beaufort, SC:  Beaufort County Records Management, 1994.  Notes: Reel 1. Index thru B-24, 1960-1990 (#1038-2292) — Reel 2. B-25 to MI-25, 1960-1990 (#1038-2294). [BDC, HHI]

George H. Johnston Papers [Microfilm]:  [1861-1871, 1927].  Birmingham, AL :  Dept. of Archives & Manuscripts, 1981.  Notes: A letter to his wife, Amanda, dated 2/6/1862, discusses the beauty of Beaufort and its destruction by Union soldiers; talks of negro soldiers and of the attitudes toward them expressed by the command; ends with a philosophical discourse on Negroes and freedom. [BDC]

Books and Videos

728.8579 MAR Northern Money, Southern Land: The Lowcountry Plantation Sketches of Chlotilde R. Martin, edited by Robert B. Cuthbert and Stephen G. Hoffius.  Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, c2009.  [BDC, BEA, BLU, HHI]

975.700 POR The Story of Cotton by Richard D. Porcher and Sarah Fick. Salt Lake City, Utah: Gibbs Smith, c2005. [BDC, BEA, BLU]

975.799 RAN A New South Hunt Club: An Illustrated History of the Hilton Head Agricultural Society, 1917-1967 by Richard Rankin. Winston-Salem, N.C.: John F. Blair, Publisher, c2006. Includes bibliographical references (p. 117-126).  [ALL]

975.799 TAY Historic Beaufort County: An Illustrated History by Michael C. Taylor.  San Antonio, TX: Historical Publishing Network, 2005. [ALL]

975.799 MAR Remembering the Way it was at Hilton Head, Bluffton & Daufuskie by Fran Heyward Marscher. (2 vols.) Charleston, SC: History Press, c2005, 2007.  [ALL]

975.799 GRE Short & Tall Tales of Hilton Head Island text by Margaret Greer; photographs by Barry Lowes.  Canada : D.W. Friesen, 2004. [BDC, HHI]

975.7 CAR The Evolution of a Town:  Hilton Head Island, South Carolina by Buzz Carota and  Bobbe Carota. USA: Data Reproductions Corp., 2002. [BDC, BLU, HHI]

792.09 HAS The Art is the Thing by H. Morgan Haskell. Hilton Head Island, SC: H. Morgan Haskell, 2004.  [BDC, BLU, HHI]

SC 283.7357 HIS A History of St. Luke’s Episcopal Church.  Hilton Head Island, SC: Episcopal Diocese of South Carolina, 2000. [BDC only]      

SC 973.73 BOL Soldiers, Sailors, Slaves and Ships: the Civil War Photographs of Henry P. Moore edited by W. Jeffrey Bolster. Concord, NH: New Hampshire Historical Society, 1999. [BDC, HHI]

SC 917.57 COA Hilton Head Island by Coastal Discovery Museum, edited by Natalie Harvey. Charleston S.C.; Arcadia Publishing, 1998. [BDC, HHI]

SC 975.7 HIL Hilton Head Island Before the Bridge [Videorecording]: A Panel Discussion by Native Islanders.  Panel members: Charles Frazier, Jr., Helen Frazier Pittman, Mary Houston, and Diogenes Singleton.  Hilton Head Isl., SC: WHHI-TV/The Museum of Hilton Head Island, 1994. [HHI]

SC 975.7 TAY Mike Taylor’s history of Hilton Head Island [sound recording] by Michael C. Taylor.  Hilton Head Island, SC: Brodie Media, Ltd. 1994. [BDC, HHI] 

REF 975.799 FOR The Forgotten History: A Photographic Essay on Civil War Hilton Head Island edited by Charles C. McCracken and Faith M. McCracken. Hilton Head Island, SC: Time Again Publications, 1993. [BDC, BLU, HHI]

975.799 BUR An Island named Daufuskie by Billie Burn. Spartanburg, S.C.: Published in association with Billie Burn Books by the Reprint Co., 1991. [BDC, BEA, BLU, HHI, LOB, STH]

975.799 GRE The Sands of Time: A History of Hilton Head Island by Margaret Greer. Hilton Head Island, S.C.: SouthArt, Inc., c1989. [BDC, HHI]

973.73 CAR Department of the South: Hilton Head Island in the Civil War by Robert Carse. Hilton Head Island, S.C.: Impressions Printing Co., Inc., 1987. [BDC, BEA, BLU, HHI] 

917.57 VIDEO A Video tour of Hilton Head Island [Videorecording]. Hilton Head Island, South Carolina: Shoreline, Inc., 1984 Notes: VHS [HHI]

975.799 SUM “Dear Sister”: Letters written on Hilton Head Island, 1867 by Eliza Ann Summers,  Josephine W. Martin, editor.  Beaufort, S.C. : Beaufort Book Co., c1977.  Notes: Letters written by Eliza Ann Summers. [BDC, BEA, BLU, HHI, STH]

SC 973.781 BAL Dudley Baldwin’s letters from Hilton Head, 1863-1864 by Dudley Baldwin. Washington, D.C. [s.n.] 1977. [BDC]

917.5799 DAN The Gentlemanly Serpent and Other Columns from a Newspaperman in Paradise: From the Pages of the Hilton Head Island Packet, 1970-73  by Jonathan Daniels ; edited by Ralph Hilton ; with a foreword by Elizabeth Boatwright Coker.  Columbia : University of South Carolina Press, 1974. [BDC, HHI]

975.799 LEV Sketchbook of Beaufort County by Renee Levin and Nancy Ricker Webb. Savannah, GA :  Kennickell Printing Co.,   c1971. [BDC, BEA, BLU, HHI]

975.799 JON Port Royal under Six Flags by Katharine M. Jones.  [S.l.]:  Bobbs-Merrill,   c1960.  [BDC, BEA, BLU, HHI, LOB]

929.2 GRA Looking Back: Reminiscences of a Black Family Heritage on Hilton Head Island by Moses Alexander Grant; assisted by Janie Aiken Grant.  Orangeburg, SC : Williams Associates, n.d.  [BDC, HHI]

975.7 BAR History in Development: 1972 – to present by Thomas C. Barnwell, Jr.  Hilton Head Island, SC: Thomas C. Barnwell, [no date].  [BDC, HHI]

917.57 ORR Hilton Head Island: A Certain Place Photography by Jeffrey Amberg, Gary Forcier, Robert Smeltzer; Text by Jim Orr; Designed by Margaret Greer and Patrick Grafton.  Hilton Head, SC: PMJ of Hilton Head, 1981. [BDC, HHI]

917.57 THO Hilton Head Island Images Photographed by William E. Cornelia; Written by Porter M. Thompson; Designed by Richard H. Harrison.  Hilton Head Island, SC: South Arts, 1983.  [BDC, BLU, HHI]

975.7 DIM Camera Man’s Journey: Julian Dimock’s South, edited by Thomas L. Johnson & Nina J. Root. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2002. [ALL]

Archaeological Reports

SC 975.799 CHI The Plantation Landscape: Slaves and Freedmen at Seabrook Plantation, Hilton Head Island, S.C. by Rachel Campo, Michael Trinkley, Debi Hacker ; with contributions by Gina Baylon … [et al.].  Columbia, S.C. : Chicora Foundation, [1998]. [BDC, HHI]

SC 975.799 CHI A Conservation Assessment and Preliminary Preservation Plan for Fort Howell, Hilton Head Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina by Michael Trinkley, Debi Hacker, and William B. Barr.  Columbia, SC : Chicora Foundation, 1997. [BDC, HHI]

SC 975.799 CHI Further Investigation of the Stoney/Baynard Main House, Hilton Head Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina prepared for Friends of Stoney/Baynard Plantation Ruins, the Environmental and Historical Museum of Hilton Head Island; prepared by Michael Trinkley.  Columbia, SC : Chicora Foundation, 1996. [BDC, HHI]

SC 975.799 MIT Mitchelville: Experiment in Freedom.  Columbia, S.C. : Chicora Foundation, 1995. [BDC]

SC 975.7 ADA In the Shadow of the Big House: Domestic Slaves at Stoney/Baynard Plantation, Hilton Head Island by prepared for Friends of Stoney/Baynard Plantation, the environmental and historical museum of Hilton Head Island ; Natalie Adams, Michael Trinkley, Debi Hacker ; with contributions by Arthur Cohen, David Lawrence, Jack H. Wilson, Jr.  Columbia, S.C.: Chicora Foundation, 1994. [BDC, HHI]

SC 975.799 TRI Archaeological Survey of Hilton Head Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina by Michael Trinkley.  [S.l.]: Chicora Foundation, Inc. 1987. [BDC, HHI]

SC 975.799 TRI Preliminary Historical Research on the Baynard Plantation, Hilton Head Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina by Michael Trinkley. Columbia, S.C.: Chicora Foundation, [1991]. [BDC]

SC 975.799 CHI Archaeological Testing at the Stoney/Baynard Plantation, Hilton Head Island, Beaufort County, S.C. by Chicora Foundation.  South Carolina: Chicora Foundation c1991. [BDC, HHI]

SC 975.7 ADA Archaeological Testing at 38BU861, a Middle Woodland Shell Midden on Hilton Head Island, Beaufort County, South Carolina by Natalie Adams.  Columbia, S.C. (P.O. Box 8664, 861 Arbutus Dr. Columbia 29202): Chicora Foundation, 1993. [BDC, HHI]


SC 975.799 TRI The Archaeological Manifestations of the “Port Royal Experiment” at Mitchelville, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina by Michael Trinkley and Debi Hacker. Columbia, S.C.: Chicora Foundation, Inc., [1987].  [BDC]

Social Media:

For Connections [the BDC Blog] entries about Hilton Head Island, including the Silver Anniversary of the Town go to http://beaufortdistrictcollectionconnections.blogspot.com/search?q=Hilton+Head

Materials may be found at the following Beaufort County Library locations:Beaufort District Collection (BDC); Beaufort Branch Library (BEA); Bluffton Branch Library (BLU); Hilton Head Island Branch Library (HHI); Lobeco Branch Library (LOB); and, St. Helena Branch Library (STH). ALL indicates that the BDC as well as all the Branch Libraries hold a copy.